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Baranowska-Prokop Ewa (Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie)
Kontrowersje związane z transakcjami offsetowymi jako uwarunkowaną formą wymiany międzynarodowej
Controversies Related to Offset Transactions as a Form of Countertrade
Zeszyty Naukowe / Szkoła Główna Handlowa. Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej, 2009, nr 24, s. 60-77, bibliogr. 18 poz.
Transakcje handlowe, Rynek broni, Bilateralna wymiana handlowa, Kraje najsłabiej rozwinięte
Commercial transaction, Firearms market, Bilateral trade, Least developed countries
Transakcje offsetowe są formą wymiany wzajemnie uwarunkowanej i podobnie jak pozostałe typy handlu wiązanego podlegają nieustającej krytyce ze strony znanych organizacji międzynarodowych, takich jak WTO, Bank Światowy, Międzynarodowy Fundusz Walutowy. Stawiane im zarzuty brzmią bardzo poważnie i dotyczą destabilizacji międzynarodowego systemu handlu i płatności. Uznaje się, że transakcje offsetowe są przejawem bilateralizmu w relacjach między uczestnikami wymiany. Towarzyszą im tak negatywne zjawiska, jak niekorzystna zmiana przepływu strumieni handlowych, fałszowanie obrazu handlu światowego i stosowanie praktyk restrykcyjnych. (fragment artykułu)

The rapid growth in the scope and scale of offsets in the last decade is unquestionable. By 1980, the countries engaged in this form of transactions numbered 10, and by 2007 this number was 180. Offset arrangements are most frequently found in the defence-related sectors, and in sales of large-scale and high-priced items such as aircrafts or modern military systems. Offsets are designed to balance the negative effect of large purchases made abroad on the current account of a country. They can take on many forms. Under direct offsets there usually are: co-production, direct subcontracting, concessions, technology transfers, licensed production or investments in defence companies. Indirect offsets usually take a form of: procurements, investments in non-defense companies, trading in commodities or other foreign defence-related projects. International organisations almost uniformly condemn offsets as a form of international trade. Public statements by the World Bank, IMF, and the WTO indicate that the opposition to them is based on broad considerations of the macroeconomic efficiency. Offsets are viewed as inconsistent with an open free-trading system. WTO sees a danger in the principle of non-discrimination and politicisation of international trade. Officials from OECD warn that such arrangements lead to an increase in trade conflicts as competitive suppliers unwilling to enter offset arrangements are displaced by less competitive suppliers who are willing to do so. All international organisations mentioned above blame offsets for destabilising international trade, bilateralism, and unfavourable change in the structure of trade flows. The objective of the paper is to discuss some more specific problems related to offsets that are indicated in the literature as their negative consequences: - effects of offset multipliers used as an instrument of the trade policy by LDCs, - change in the structure of relationships in the international arms market, - the rise of international cartels in the airforce market, - distortions in the industrial structure of offset-supplying countries, - security problems of offset arrangements, arms proliferation, and growing pressure on new R&D in this sector. Analysing the problem from the long-term perspective, the author stresses that despite all its negative consequences this type of countertrade will not disappear from international trade practice mainly due to political reasons, and the need for integrity and protection of military markets. (original abstract)
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