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Słomski Wojciech (Wyższa Szkoła Finansów i Zarządzania w Warszawie)
Wychowanie poprzez instytucje szkoły
Upbringing and Education in the School Institutions
Humanum. Międzynarodowe Studia Społeczno-Humanistyczne, 2011, nr 6 (1), s. 329-367, rys.
Humanum. International Social and Humanist Studies
Wychowanie, Edukacja, Szkolnictwo państwowe, Osobowość człowieka
Parenting, Education, State education, Human personality
Contemporary psychology ascribes a very important role to both upbringing and teaching-learning processes in psychical development. It is indicated that a child's personality is being shaped as a result of this influence. The most intensive development obviously concerns the youngest children because both psyche and organism of the child are distinguished by large plasticity in the period of early childhood. The elementary regulating mechanisms based on impulses and emotions dependent on functions of the subcortical centres are shaped in this period. The small child's behaviour is still little organized, changeable and impulsive. The child is mainly guided by emotions. Children acquire their basic orientation to the world in the first school years, at the level of primary teaching, and first of all, in their closest environment. They gain knowledge about reality by means of free observations of concrete objects and phenomena turning gradually tasks carried out in the form of fun into didactic activities, i.e., to planned and regular learning and teaching. The child should be already prepared to live an individual life in a democratic society since early childhood where co-existence is guarded by wise principles of co-operation. Pupils' preparation to the individual life is also necessary. Formation of proper attitudes, personality, and skills and knowledge is the most important general aim of upbringing accomplished at school. School supports families in these areas and supplement their influences. Up to now a practical example stirring up plenty of controversy in the environment of both parents and teachers has been for instance Personal Health and Social Education. Therefore we say about three phases of the professional attitude of teachers which they are going through while learning to teach.The first phase consists of attitude of acting how to survive - a teacher who has just taken a job is mainly concerned with survival. He worries about assessment of his interpersonal relationships, and whether superiors and pupils will grow fond of him. The second phase is his attitude to a didactic situation. In that phase teachers already habitually fulfil certain tasks and carry out definite actions. Teachers' attention and energy are transferred to the process of teaching itself. Last stage is achievement of professional maturity and an attitude towards pupils. In this phase teachers try to use more methods and strategy so that pupils could understand presented issues. The functions of improvement of professional skills by teachers should be correlated with supporting top-down educational reforms. (original abstract)
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