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Höhn Karl (Universität Hamburg, Niemcy, doktorant)
Four Early Attempts to Develop Power Formulas (1741-1955)
Stosunki Międzynarodowe, 2011, t. 44, nr 3/4, s. 305-317, bibliogr. 32 poz.
International Relations
Państwo, Czynniki demograficzne, Zasoby naturalne, Bezpieczeństwo narodowe, Wojsko, Doktryny polityczne, Historia myśli politycznej, Potencjał wojskowy
State, Demographic factors, Natural resources, National security, Army, Political doctrine, History of political thought, Military potential
Süßmilch Johann Peter, Friedensburg Ferdinand, Stewart John Quincy, Wright Philip Quincy
The history of power formulas can be roughly divided into different time periods. The first time period refers to all power formulas created before 1960. In 1960 Frank Clifford German published his calculations of national power1. The paper has only seven pages and is as such rather rudimentary. German explicitly admits the arbitrary and subjective way in which he pieced together the numbers. He failed to attain any recognition in academia after producing this formula, because he switched to journalism. It seems mere coincidence that this paper was noticed, remembered and subsequently cited by the Correlates of War (COW) network starting in 1963 and led by David Singer. In any case, a more systematic era commenced with Clifford German's power equation in 1960. From this point power equations became much more common. A number of individuals started to quantify power with more attentiveness to the past and current efforts in that direction, so that these people became more or less mutually aware of each other. (fragment of text)
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  1. C.F. German, A Tentative Evaluation of World Power, "Journal of Conflict Resolution" 1960, Vol. 4, No. 1, (15.04.2011).
  2. Harm Klueting's post-doc habilitation thesis is an example for such a work on the assessment of power in the 18th century.
  3. H. Klueting, Die Lehre von der Macht der Staaten: Das außenpolitische Machtproblem in der "politischen Wissenschaft" und in der praktischen Politik im 18. Jahrhundert, Berlin 1986.
  4. A. Maddison, 2010. Statistics on World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2008 AD, 2010 [spreadsheet], (18.04.2011)
  5. J.E. Wappäus, Allgemeine Bevölkerungsstatistik, 1 Theil, Leipzig 1859
  6. J.P. Süßmilch, Die göttliche Ordnung in den Veränderungen des menschlichen Geschlechts, aus der Geburt, dem Tode und der Fortpflanzung desselben erwiesen, 3 Ausgabe, Göttingen 1765 (1988), 1/402.
  7. S. B. Cohen, Geography and Politics in a World Divided, 1st edition, New York 1963.
  8. F. Ratzel, Politische Geographie, 3 Ausgabe, München 1923
  9. M. Zirlewagen, Ferdinand Friedensburg, in: T. Bautz (ed.), Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirschenlexikon, Band XXVI [online], Nordhausen 2006, (21.04.2011).
  10. F. Friedensburg, Die Mineralischen Bodenschätze als weltpolitische und militärische Machtfaktoren, Stuttgart 1936.
  11. G. Fischer, Wehrwirtschaft: Ihre Grundlagen und Theorien, Leipzig 1936;
  12. G. Fischer, Der Wehr-wirtschaftliche Bedarf, "Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft" 1939, Heft 99, http:/ (15.04.2011).
  13. N. Ferguson, Der falsche Krieg: Der Erste Weltkrieg und das 20. Jahrhundert, translated by Klaus Kochmann, Stuttgart 1999
  14. H. Morgenthau, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, 1st edition, New York 1948
  15. B. Emeny, The Strategy of Raw Materials: A Study of America in Peace and War, New York 1934
  16. F.H. Simonds, E. Brooks, The Great Powers in World Politics: International Relations and Economic Nationalism, New York 1935.
  17. S.B. Jones, The Power Inventory and National Strategy, "World Politics" 1953, Vol. 6, No. 4, (15 Apr 2011).
  18. J.G. Stoessinger, The Might of Nations: World Politics in Our Time, New York 1990
  19. J.Q. Stewart, Demographic Gravitation: Evidence and Applications, "Sociometry" 1948, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, (20.04.2011).
  20. J.Q. Stewart, The Development of Social Physics, "American Journal of Physics" 1950, Vol. 18, No. 5, (20.04.2011)
  21. D. Maxeiner, Dem Zufall eine Chance "Die Zeit" 1995, (32) [online], (18.04.2011).
  22. J. Stewart, Coasts, Waves and Weather for Navigators, Boston 1945
  23. K. Vowinckel, Ein zweiter Napoleon?, "Zeitschrift für Geopolitik" 1941, Vol. 18, No. 7
  24. J.Q. Stewart, Natural Law Factors in United States Foreign Policy, "Social Science" 1954, Vol. 29, No. 3
  25. H. Sprout, Geopolitical Hypotheses in Technological Perspective, "World Politics" 1962, Vol. 15, No. 2
  26. I. Xierali, Foreign Diplomatic Interaction with the United States, 1990-2000:
  27. A Gravity Model Approach, Paper presented at the Association of American Geographers (AAG) Pre-Conference at the University of Colorado, 3-5 April 2005, Boulder, United States, p. 1, (21.04. 2011).
  28. A. Supan, Leitlinien der allgemeinen politischen Geographie: Naturlehre des Staates, 2 Ausgabe, Leipzing 1922
  29. K. Höhn, 2011Power in Alexander Supan's Guidelines to General Political Geography (1918/1920), "Przegląd Geopolityczny" 2011, Vol. 3
  30. K.E. Haynes, S.A. Fother- ingham, Gravity and Spatial Interaction Models, Beverly Hills 1984.
  31. R.J. Rummel, Understanding Conflict and War, Vol. 1: The Dynamic Psychological Field, New York 1975,
  32. Q. Wright, The Study of International Relations, New York 1955
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