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Kaczmarski Marcin (Uniwersytet Warszawski)
The Role of Domestic Politics in a State's Foreign Policy
Rola czynników wewnętrznych w polityce zagranicznej państwa
Stosunki Międzynarodowe, 2014, t. 50, nr 2, s. 317-328, bibliogr. 41 poz.
International Relations
Polityka wewnętrzna, Polityka zagraniczna, Ustrój państwa
Domestic policy, Foreign policy, Political system of the state
Pomimo iż badacze poczynili wiele wysiłków, aby "otworzyć" państwo, wpływ czynników wewnętrznych na politykę zagraniczną pozostaje niełatwym przedmiotem analizy. Niniejszy artykuł oferuje krytyczną analizę dominujących podejść w literaturze oraz proponuje włączenie koncepcji wewnętrznego układu sił (domestic power relations) do procesu wieloprzyczynowej analizy polityki zagranicznej. Do głównych problemów teoretycznych należy zaliczyć: przydawanie zbyt dużej (determinującej) lub zbyt małej roli polityce wewnętrznej; redukcję polityki wewnętrznej do uwarunkowań strukturalnych bądź do osoby lidera; fragmentaryzację polityki wewnętrznej w procesie analizy oraz generalizowanie roli polityki wewnętrznej bez wzięcia pod uwagę uwarunkowań systemu politycznego. Koncepcja wewnętrznego układu sił proponuje syntetyczne ujęcie uwarunkowań wewnątrzpolitycznych w sposób pozwalający na pełniejsze zrozumienie ich wpływu na politykę zagraniczną państwa. (abstrakt oryginalny)

The inclusion of domestic variables into the process of foreign policy explanation ceased to be an object of controversy a long time ago. It is commonly agreed that 'interplay, indeed overlap, between the domestic and the external sources of behavior is central to any modern understanding of what foreign policy does'. Even approaches giving primacy to system-level explanations, such as neo-classical realism, acknowledge the role played by domestic factors. Scholars admit that "most foreign policies emanate from diffuse sources of power" and "involve a fair amount of political power struggle". Foreign policy represents preferences and interests of dominating parts of society, rather than a 'black box' of a state. Notwithstanding the above, the effects of domestic political competition on foreign policy still remain unspecified, in particular with regard to non-democratic actors. What is lacking is an account of the complexity and dynamics of domestic politics: power struggles within a state, bargaining between those in power and society, competition among powerful constituencies over economic rents, distribution of public goods, and access to a leader. As political bargaining leaves its mark on particular state policies and shapes the directions of politico-economic development, there is no reason for a priori exclusion of foreign policy, particularly if foreign policy actions, with signifi cant economic components, are to be discussed. (fragment of text)
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