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Butler Richard W. (University of Strathclyde, UK, Professor Emeritus)
The Origins of the Tourism Area Life Cycle
Folia Turistica / Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. B. Czecha w Krakowie, 2011, nr 25, s. 45-61, rys., bibliogr. 49 poz.
Issue title
The Master Classes
Turystyka, Badanie turystyki, Modelowanie zjawisk czasowo-przestrzennych
Tourism, Tourism research, Modeling of time-space
summ., Artykuł dostępny także w języku polskim w numerze 25(2)
In 1980 R.W. Butler published a theoretical model of the evolution of a tourist area (The Concept of a Tourist Area and Cycle of Evolution: Implications for Management of Resources), better known by the acronym TALC. Butler's concept became a classic model, which continues to be developed to this day. In recent years it has been modified multiple times, but also confirmed by authors around the world. A quarter of a century after its debut in the pages of Canadian Geographer magazine, Butler oversaw the publication of a comprehensive, two-volume monograph entitled The Tourism Area Life Cycle (Vol. 1: Applications and Modifications, Vol. 2: Conceptual and Theoretical Issues).2 Volume One includes over a dozen articles presenting the premises of Butler's model, its implementation, and its use in interpreting the development of cultural heritage sites or tourist regions. The second volume include works that describe the theoretical bases of the TALC model, alternative conceptions, and numerous modification and applications. The following text, the first chapter of Volume One, takes us to the source of the theory of the evolution of the tourist area. It culls from the author's experiences in the 1950s, from observing British recreation sites like the Isle of Arran in Scotland, Rhyl in Wales, summer vacation sites on Clyde River and research (from his PhD thesis) conducted in the highlands and mountains of Scotland. His observations of changes occurring in the development of tourist regions in the British Isles and Continental Europe (such as Opatija, presently in Croatia) formed the basis for his theory of tourist site evolution. Butler published his first work on forecasting the development of tourism in 1972 (co-written by Brougham) at a sitting of the Travel Research Association in Quebec; it sought to form a hypothetical model for tourist destination development. R.W. Butler's work draws upon Christaller's earlier theories of peripheral centres, and Plog's psychogram of tourists, which had a considerable influence on the final shape of his theory. He also mentions Stansfield's work on the development of Atlantic City, Doxey's articles on changes in the relationships between residents of tourist centres and the tourists themselves, and the works of Roy Wolfe on the summer homes and beaches of Wasaga in the province of Ontario. In constructing his asymptotic curve, Butler was helped by Darling's study on changes in deer herd populations. In conclusion, the author states that the idea of the model of tourist site development appeared a century before his now-classic work of 1980, as proven by Godkin's 1883 article in The Nation on the development of American resort towns, Hobbs's piece for Worcester Magazine in 1915 and Gilbert's article for The Times in 1939. It was only with Butler's work, however, that an academic framework was given to the concept of the cyclical development of the tourist area. (original abstract)
Full text
  1. Barrett J. (1958), The seaside resort towns of England and Wales, Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London, London.
  2. Brougham J.E. and Butler, R.W. (1972), The applicability of the asymptotic curve to the forecasting of tourism development. Paper presented to the Research Workshop, Travel Research Association 4th Annual Conference, Quebec, July 1972.
  3. Bunge W. (1966), Theoretical Geography, C.W.K. Gleerup Publishers, Lund.
  4. Butler R.W. (1973), The tourist industry in the Highlands and Islands. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, Glasgow.
  5. Butler R.W. (1980), The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. The Canadian Geographer, 24 (1): 5-12.
  6. Butler R.W. (1990a), The resort cycle revisited - a decade of discussion. Paper presented to Association of American Geographers Conference, Toronto, April 1990.
  7. Butler R.W. (1990b), Alternative tourism: Pious hope or trojan horse, Journal of Travel Research, 28(3): 40-44.
  8. Butler R.W. (1991), Tourism, environment and sustainable development, Environmental Conservation, 18(3): 201-209.
  9. Butler R. (1993), Pre- and Post-Impact Assessment of Tourism Development. Tourism Research: Critiques and Challenges, Routledge, New York.
  10. Butler R.W. (1997), The destination life cycle: Implications for heritage site management and attractivity, [in:] W. Nuryanti (ed.), Tourism and Heritage Management, Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta, pp. 44-53.
  11. Butler R.W. (1998a), Still peddling along. The resort cycle two decades on. Paper to Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research. CAUTHE Conference, Gold Coast.
  12. Butler R. (1998b), Sustainable tourism - looking backwards in order to progress?, [in:] CM. Hall and A. Lew (eds.), Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Addison Wesley - Longman, New York, pp. 25-34.
  13. Butler, R.W. (2000), The resort cycle two decades on, [in:] B. Faulkner, G. Moscardo and E. Laws (eds.), Tourism in the 21st Century: Reflections on Experience, Continuum, London - New York, pp. 284-299.
  14. Butler R.W. and Boyd, S.W. (2000), Tourism and parks - a long but uneasy relationship, [in:] R.W. Butler and S.W. Boyd (eds.) Tourism and National Parks. Issues and Implications, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 3-11.
  15. Casagrandi R. and Rinaldi S. (2002), A theoretical approach to tourism sustainability. Conservation Ecology, 6(1): 13-35.
  16. Coles T, (2006). Enigma Variations? The TALC, Marketing Models and the Descendentes of the Product Life Cycle, [in:] R.W. Butler (ed.), The Tourism Area Life Cycle. Vol. 2, Conceptual and Theoretical Issues, Channel View Publications, pp. 49-66.
  17. Corak S., (2006), The modification of the Tourism Area Life Cycle Model for (Re)inventing a Destination. The Case of the Opatija Riviera, Croatia, [in:] R.W. Butler (ed.), The Tourism Area Life Cycle. Vol.1.
  18. Conceptual and Theoretical Issues, Channel View Publications, Bristol, pp. 71-286.
  19. Christaller W. (1963), Some considerations of tourism location in Europe: The peripheral regions - underdeveloped countries - recreation areas. Regional Science Association Papers XII, Lund Congress, pp. 95- 105.
  20. Darling RF. (1936), A Herd of Red Deer, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  21. Darling F.F. (1941), Island Years, G. Bell and Sons Ltd., London.
  22. Darling F.F. (1943), Island Farm, G. Bell and Sons Ltd., London.
  23. Doxey G.V. (1975), A causation theory of visitor - resident irritants: Methodology and research inferences. Proceedings of the Travel Research Association 6th Annual Conference, Travel Research Association, San Diego, pp. 195-198.
  24. Gilbert E.W. (1939), The growth of inland and seaside health resorts in England. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 55: 16-35.
  25. Gilbert E.W. (1954), Brighton - Old Ocean's Bauble, Methuen, London.
  26. Godkin E.L. (1883), Evolution of the summer resort, The Nation, July 19: 47-48.
  27. Hall C.M. (1996) Personal communication on the relevance of lines in sand pits to resort life cycles. April, Ontario London.
  28. Hall M., (2006), Contributing to an Improved Understanding of Tourism, [in:] R.W. Butler (ed.), The Tourism Area Life Cycle. Vol. 2. Conceptual and Theoretical Issues, Channel View Publications, pp. 83-100.
  29. Haywood K.M. (1986), Can the tourist area life-cycle be made operational?, Tourism Management, 7(3): 154-167.
  30. Hobbs C. (1913), The ruin or the redemption of Lake Quinsigamond, The Worcester Magazine, February: 35-38.
  31. House J. (1954), Geographical aspects of coastal holiday resorts. Unpublished PhD thesis, Kings College, Durham.
  32. Johnson D., Snepenger J. (2006), Residents' Perceptions of Tourism Development over the Early Stages of the TALC, [in:] R.W. Butler (ed.), The Tourism Area Life Cycle. Vol.1. Conceptual and Theoretical Issues, Channel View Publications.
  33. Lundgren J.O. (1984), Geographic concepts and the development of tourism research in Canada. Geo Journal, 9: 17-25.
  34. Manente M. (2006), How to Define, Identify and Monitor the Decline of Tourist Destination: Towards an Early Warning System, [in:] R.W. Butler (ed.), The Tourism Area Life Cycle. Vol.2. Conceptual and Theoretical Issues, Channel View, pp. 235-253.
  35. Ogilvie F.W. (1933), The Tourism Movement, Staples Press, London.
  36. Papatheodorau A., (2006), TALC and the Spatial Implications of Competetion, [in:] R.W. Butler (ed.), The Tourism Area Life Cycle. Vol.2. Conceptual and Theoretical Issues, Channel View Publications, pp. 67-82.
  37. Pattison D.A. (1968), Tourism in the Firth of Clyde. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, Glasgow.
  38. Pimlott J.A.R. (1947), The Englishman's Holiday, Faber, London.
  39. Pine B.J. and Gilmore J.H. (1999), The Experience Economy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
  40. Plog S.C. (1973), Why destinations areas rise and fall in popularity, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Association Quarterly, 13: 6-13.
  41. Snepenger D.J., O'Connell, R. and Snepenger, M. (2001), The embrace-withdrawal continuum scale: Operationalizing residents' responses toward tourism development, Journal of Travel Research, 40(2): 155-161.
  42. Stansfield C.A. and Rickert J.E. (1970), The recreational business district, Journal of Leisure Research, 2(4): 213-225.
  43. Stansfield C.A. (1978), Atlantic City and the resort cycle. Background to the legalization of gambling, Annals of Tourism Research, 5(2): 238-251.
  44. Thompson D.C. and Grimble, I. (1968) The Future of the Highlands and Islands, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
  45. Wall G. (1982), Cycles and capacity: Incipient growth or theory, Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2): 52-56.
  46. Williams, A. and Zelinsky W. (1970), On some patterns in international tourist flows, Economic Geography, 46(4): 549-567.
  47. Wolfe R.I. (1952), Wasaga Beach - the divorce from the geographic environment, The Canadian Geographer, 2: 57-66.
  48. Wolfe R.I. (1948), The summer cottages of Ontario. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto.
  49. Yokeno N. (1968), La Localisation de l'ndustrie Touristique - Application de l'Analyse de Thunen-Weber, Les Cahiers du Tourisme Serie C. No. 9, Aix en Provence.
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