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Dobrowolski Jan W. (AGH University of Science and Technology Kraków, Poland), Guha Ananya S. (The Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, India)
Open University and Modern Distance Learning for Sustainable Development in India and Poland
Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, 2011, nr 5/1, s. 25-35, bibliogr. 23 poz.
Nauczanie, Zdalne nauczanie, Szkolnictwo wyższe
Teaching, e-learning, Higher education
Indie, Polska
India, Poland
Historycznie rzecz biorąc, kształcenie na odległość, również utożsamiane z "Otwartym uczeniem się", powstało w XIX wieku w krajach europejskich, w formie edukacji pocztowej, w której nauczyciel lub mentor udzielał nauki za pomocą listu lub "korespondencji". Stopniowo korespondencja stała się jednym z filarów edukacji na odległość. Jest to jedna z metodologii stosowanych do nauki na odległość nawet dzisiaj.

Historically speaking Distance Education, also identified with "Open Learning" originated in the 19th century in European countries, in the form of postal education, where the tutor or mentor imparted learning by means of the letter or by "correspondence". Gradually correspondence came to be one of the mainstays of Distance Edu-cation. It is one of the methodologies used for Distance Learning even today [21, 23]. The use of technology and multimedia: the radio, the television, audio video conferencing, the computer and the mobile phone have transformed and exacer-bated the very processes of Distance Education, so much so that the "real" and the "virtual" have merged and have become composite entities. Indeed today the identity of Distance Education is "endangered" and is in some sort of a crisis, as it now impinges upon traditional and conventional education with internet learning substituting the classroom. Earlier parameters were fixed so to say, and Distance Education typified features which were set apart and "distinct" from the stereotypes of conventional classroom teaching and learning the structured four walls of the classroom. (fragment of text)
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  19. Mitewa H., Crowther D.: Education for sustainability: Tourism and conservation of Natural Resources. Pol. J. Environmental Studies, 15, 5C, 2006, pp. 13-16.
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  22. Tadeusiewicz R., Dobrowolski J.W.: Use e-learning technology and cybernetic methodology for modern education for prevention of environmental health hazard based on sustainable development. [in:] Ermidou-Pollet S., Pollet S. (Eds), Proc. of the International Seminar on Trace Elements in Humans, University of Athens, Athens 2010.
  23. Williams M.L., Paprock K., Covington B.: Distance Learning The Essential Guide. SAGE Publications, International Educational and Professional Publisher, Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi 1999.
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