BazEkon - The Main Library of the Cracow University of Economics

BazEkon home page

Main menu

Ciosek Ireneusz (Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Poland)
Aggravating Uncertainty͵ Russian Information Warfare in the West
Torun International Studies, 2020, nr 1(13), s. 57-72, bibliogr. 55 poz.
Polityka zagraniczna, Władza, Niepewność
Foreign policy, Power, Uncertainty
Unia Europejska (UE)
European Union (EU)
Rosja, Europa Zachodnia
Russia, Western Europe
According to vast evidence material, Russia actively tries to influence the situation in Western societies by creating and aggravating uncertainty with the usage of weaponized information. It can be treated as an important part of Russian application of sharp power in the West. The purpose of the article is to explore the selected exemplifications of Russian activities and create a map of disruptive operations against the Western "hearts and minds". The main scientific methods used in the study are desk research and content analysis. The employment of these methods is crucial to conduct the study of official Russian documents and identified cases of anti-Western information operations.(original abstract)
Full text
  1. Common Pro-Kremlin Disinformation Narratives. (2019). Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  2. Aleksandrowicz, T. R. (2016). Podstawy walki informacyjnej, Warszawa: Editions-Spotkania.
  3. Bell, C. (2018). No, BBC is not reporting the end of the world. Retrieved February 2, 2020, from
  4. Braw, E. (2019). Second Strike Communications. RUSI Newsbrief, 39(4).
  5. Certainly Russian': Swedes Mock Reports of 'Suspected Sub' Spotted Off Coast. (2018). Retrieved August 2, 2019, from
  6. Chen, A. (2015). The Agency. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  7. Chiesa, G. (2019), TACI! La NATO ti osserva. E si prepara. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  8. Colleoni, E., Rozza, A., & Arvidsson, A. (2014). Echo Chamber or Public Sphere? Predicting Political Orientation and Measuring Political Homophily in Twitter Using Big Data. Journal of Communication, 64(2), 317-322.
  9. Darczewska, J. (2014). The anatomy of Russian information warfare. The Crimean operation, a case study. Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies.
  10. Darczewska, J. & Żochowski, P. (2017). Active Measures. Russia's Key Export. Warsaw: Center for Eastern Studies.
  11. Denaro russo per la Lega di Salvini: ecco gli audio dell'incontro a Mosca con Gianluca Savoini. (2019). Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  12. Deyermond, R. (2016). The Uses of Sovereignty in Twenty First First Century Russian Foreign Policy. Europe-Asia Studies, 68(6).
  13. Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation. (2016). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. Retrieved February 4, 2020, from
  14. Ebner, J. (2019). Who are Europe's far-right identitarians?, Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  15. Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation. (2016). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Retrieved February 4, 2020, from
  16. Freedman, L. (2018). Putin's new Cold War. New Statesman, 16-22 March.
  17. Gábor Vona had a lecture at Lomonosov University in Russia. (2018). Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  18. Giles, K. (2016). Handbook of Russian Information Warfare, Rome: NATO Defence College.
  19. Goldsmith, J., & Rusell, S. (2018). Strengths Become Vulnerabilities. How Digital World Disadvantages the United States in Its International Relations. Aegis Series Paper No. 1806.
  20. Götz, E. (2017). Putin, the State, and War: The Causes of Russia's Near Abroad Assertion Revisited. International Studies Review, 19, 1-22.
  21. Hardin, R. (2002). The Crippled Epistemology of Extremism. In A. Breton, G. Galeotti, P. Salmon, R. & Wintrobe (Eds.), Political Extremism and Rationality (pp. 3-22). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  22. Heaton, J. (2012). What is secondary analysis? In J. Goodwin (Ed.), Secondary Data Analysis (pp. 1-20). London: Sage.
  23. Horner, W. (2018). BBC forced to deny reporting outbreak of nuclear war after fake news clip goes viral. Retrieved February 9, 2020, from
  24. Houeix, R. (2017). Neuf millions d'euros: le prix du FN pour soutenir la diplomatie russe en Ukraine. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  25. Johnson, M., & Ghiglione, D. (2018). Matteo Salvini praises Putin ahead of Russia trip. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  26. Keyes, R. (2004). The Post-Truth Era: Dishonesty and Deception in Contemporary Life. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  27. Kragh, M., & Åsberg, S. (2017). Russia's strategy for influence through public diplomacy and active measures: the Swedish case. Journal of Strategic Studies, 40(6), 773-816.
  28. Kubyshkin, A., & Sergunin, A. (2015). The Problem of the "Special Path" in Russian Foreign Policy. Russian Social Science Review, 56(3), 31-42.
  29. Laruelle, M. (2015). Dangerous Liaisons: Eurasianism, the European Far Right, and Putin' Russia. In M. Laurelle (Ed.), Eurasianism and the European Far Right. Reshaping the Europe-Russia Relationship. London: Lexington.
  30. Lulko, L. (2016). Russia has become the only defender of Christian values. Retrieved August 2, 2019, from
  31. Kappes, A., Nussberger A., Siegel, J. Z., Rutledge, R.B., & Crockett, M.J. (2019). Social uncertainty is heterogeneous and sometimes valuable. Nature Human Bahaviour, 3(764). Retrieved March 29, 2020, from
  32. Man found guilty of abusing Russian-German teenager who fabricated rape story. (2017). Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  33. Management Research Group. (2019). Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  34. Mathiot, C. (2018). Pourquoi un véhicule blindé de la gendarmerie arborait-il un drapeau européen samedi à Paris? Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  35. Mautner, G. (2019). No Tears of Joy Shed Over Ursula's Surprise Appointment. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  36. McGuiness, D. (2016). Russia steps into Berlin 'rape' storm claiming German cover-up. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  37. Michel, C. (2017). How Russia Became the Leader of the Global Christian Right. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  38. Mudde C. (2004). The populists Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, 39(4).
  39. Nalbandov, R. (2016). Not By Bread Alone. Russian Foreign Policy Under Putin. Lincoln: Potomac Books.
  40. Non, l'Union européenne n'a pas envoyé de blindés aider Emmanuel Macron. (2018). Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  41. Nuclear Emergency Broadcast - Live Breaking News from London (fiction). (2016). Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  42. Nye J. S. (2005). Soft Power. The Means of Success in World Politics. New York: PublicAffairs.
  43. Pomerantsev, P. (2015). Inside the Kremlin's hall of mirrors. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  44. Ponarin, E., & Komin, M. (2018). The Russian elite's imperial nationalism and the Russian society: The emergence of a grand consensus. Sociology Compass, 12(12), 1-12.
  45. Rivera, D. W., & Werning Rivera, S. (2018). The Militarization of the Russian Elite under Putin. What We Know, What We Think We Know (but Don't), and What We Need to Know. Problems of Post-Communism, 65(4).
  46. Rutenberg, J. (2017). RT, Sputnik and Russia's New Theory of War. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  47. Schneider, M. B. (2018). Russian nuclear "de-escalation" of future war. Comparative Strategy, 37(5), 361-372.
  48. Shekhovstov, A. (2018). Russia and the Western Far Right. Tango Noir. New York: Routledge.
  49. Starbird, K. (2017). Information Wars: A Window into the Alternative Media Ecosystem. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  50. Świder, K. (2016). Geopolityka jako światopogląd władzy w Rosji. Teka Komisji Politologii i Stosunków Międzynarodowych, 11(3), 35-58.
  51. Swiridow, L. (2019). Jastrzębia retoryka prezydenta Dudy będzie studzona przez USA. Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  52. The "Lisa case": Germany as a target of Russian disinformation. (2016). Retrieved February 8, 2020, from
  53. Torkunov, A. V. (2018). Great Eurasian Power in the Whirlwind of Change Russia's Mission in the 20th Century. MGIMO Review of International Relations, 3(60), 7-15. 10.24833/2071-8160-2018-3-60-7-15
  54. Tsygankov, A. P. (2018). The Sources of Russia fear of NATO. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 51, 101-111.
  55. Walker, C. (2018). What is "Sharp Power". Journal of Democracy, 29(3), 9-23.
Cited by
Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Google+ Share on Pinterest Share on LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu