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Author
Zawojska Aldona (Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Poland), Siudek Tomasz (Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Poland)
Title
A Theoretical and Empirical Approach to Foreign Labour Migration and Employment : the Case of Agri-Food Migrantworkers in Developed Economies
Podejście teoretyczne i empiryczne do migracji zarobkowych i zatrudnienia cudzoziemców na przykładzie migrantów pracujących w sektorze rolno-żywnościowym w gospodarkach rozwiniętych
Source
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Oeconomia, 2021, R. 20, nr 4, s. 63-81, tab., rys., bibliogr. 134 poz.
Keyword
Migracja, Rolnictwo, Rynek pracy, Przemysł spożywczy, Pandemia, COVID-19
Migration, Agriculture, Labour market, Food industry, Pandemic, COVID-19
Note
JEL Classification: B00, F27, J43, J7, J61, J31, E26.
streszcz., summ.
Abstract
Większość dotychczasowych badań dotyczących migracji koncentrowała się na skali i skutkach exodusu ludzi z obszarów wiejskich do miast, a nie na obszarach wiejskich jako odbiorcach migrantów, zwłaszcza zagranicznych. Niniejszy artykuł ma na celu analizę zatrudnienia cudzoziemców w rolnictwie i przetwórstwie spożywczym wybranych krajów rozwiniętych, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem czasu pandemii COVID-19. Na wstępie dokonano przeglądu literatury odnośnie idei, koncepcji i teorii dotyczących migracji ludności ewoluujących w historii myśli ekonomicznej i społecznej. Te teoretyczne podstawy zawierające ekonomiczne, społeczne, zdrowotne, demograficzne i zintegrowane teorie oraz koncepcje migracji pomagają zrozumieć czynniki przyciągające migrantów do kraju docelowego, oraz czynniki wypychające ich ze swoich rodzimych krajów, a także konsekwencje obecnych międzynarodowych procesów migracyjnych. Następnie przedstawiono wiele faktów dotyczących zatrudniania cudzoziemców w rolnictwie i przetwórstwie żywności w krajach rozwiniętych tradycyjnie dotkniętych dużymi niedoborami siły roboczej w tych sektorach, a także wpływ kryzysu pandemii COVID-19 na pracodawców i pracowników. Wyniki pokazują, że niedobory podaży siły roboczej i eksploatacja pracowników należy do najczęstszych i stosunkowo stałych dylematów związanych z imigrantami zatrudnionymi w sektorze rolno-żywnościowym. Podczas kryzysu COVID-19 problemy te zaostrzyły się i dodatkowo zostały uzupełnione zagrożeniem zdrowia pracowników z powodu ognisk koronawirusa w gospodarstwach rolnych i zakładach przetwórstwa spożywczego. (abstrakt oryginalny)

Most of the research on migration has focused on the scale and effects of people exodus from rural to urban areas rather than on rural areas as recipients of migrants, especially foreign migrants. This study aims to analyse employment of foreigners in agriculture and food processing sectors of selected developed countries, with particular emphasis on the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. It first reviews existing literature on ideas and theories about human migration through the history of economic and social thought. This theoretical background lies in the economic, social, health, demographic and integrated theories and concepts of migra-tion that help understand the pull and push causes as well consequences of current international migration processes. Next, this article presents some facts about the employment of foreigners in agriculture and food processing in developed countries traditionally affected by severe labour shortages in these sectors, as well as the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on employers and workers. The results reveal that labour shortages and labour exploitation are amongst the most frequent and relatively consistent issues associated with immigrant workers in the agri-food industry. During COVID-19, these problems were exacerbated and complemented with the workers' health risk due to coronavirus clusters on farms and at food-processing plants. (original abstract)
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ISSN
1644-0757
Language
eng
URI / DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.22630/ASPE.2021.20.4.32
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