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System ochrony praw człowieka w wymiarze międzynarodowym
International Catalogue of Human Rights
Zeszyty Naukowe / Szkoła Główna Handlowa. Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej, 1999, nr 6, s. 113-134, bibliogr. 20 poz.
Prawa człowieka, Prawo międzynarodowe
Human rights, International law
W artykule dokonano przeglądu międzynarodowego systemu ochrony praw człowieka. Wyróżniono: uniwersalny system ochrony praw człowieka stworzony pod auspicjami ONZ, regionalne systemy ochrony praw człowieka: w Europie (system ochrony praw człowieka Rady Europy, system ochrony praw człowieka KBWE, system ochrony praw człowieka Wspólnot Europejskich), system ochrony praw człowieka na kontynencie amerykańskim i afrykańskim. Przedstawiono także próby utworzenia systemu ochrony praw człowieka państw arabskich.

The process of establishing the international catalogue of human rights started within the United Nations. The first document devoted to this subject was the Declaration of Human Rights signed in Paris in 1948. It stated that human rights form the basis of freedom, independence and peace. Thought from the legal point of view it is just the resolution, it had a substantial influence in the process of preparing within the UN other documents dealing with the human rights such as International Pact of Civil and Political Rights and International Pact of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (both signed in 1966). They both have the character of international treaties and on one hand they defined the rights included in the Declaration but on the other they expanded the range of economic, social and cultural rights. The above documents have the universal character and they formed the background to prepare within the UN further international conventions dealing with human rights such as Convention against the Discrimination of Women (of 1979) and the Convention of the Children's Rights (of 1989). Together with those documents there exist some conventions worked out by regional international organisations. The most developed regional system of human rights is that existing in Europe mainly based on conventions of the Council of Europe. Some new elements into the process of establishing international human rights were introduced by the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe as well as by European Communities. The less developed international systems of human rights exist in American continents and in Africa.(original abstract)
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