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Krzyżanowski Witold
Budżety czasu i racjonalne wyzyskanie czasu po pracy
The problem of leisure after work
Folia Oeconomica Cracoviensia, 1961, vol. 1, z. 2, s. 57-92, przypisy
Słowa kluczowe
Czas wolny
Leisure time
summ., rez.
The constant shortening of the obligatory daily or weekly working time is an undoubted fact giving rise to the problem of the rational utilization of the increasingly long periods of apparent leisure. This problem has been little studied up to now, although its great importance is obvious. An approach to the problem must be preceded by a study of the factual state of affairs, i. e. the time budgets of various social classes, their present needs, and future trends. In a period of violent technical changes, which lead to a reduction of human effort, it is one of the major problems of our humanistic culture. The economic and social sides of the problem have three main aspects, namely the curtailment of the working time in the age period of full productivity, a prolongation of the period of education of youth, and a longer period of apparent inactivity in old age. For the economist the problem moreover is connected with those of unemployment and the right of the individual to work. Increased leisure creates also many sociological problems. Individuals are drawn together in new social groups, to which they often feel more closely attached than to their working place or professional group. The role and the importance, as well as the number of extra-professional associations and groups is increasing. The employment of leisure time is very closely associated with human needs, their state of evolution, and their developmental trends. Hence, social needs, and the changed ways of life with which they are connected, will require close study, as well as the ideals towards which man strives, i. e. the desired standards of life. In view of that problems of growing population are discussed, as well as those connected with employment of leisure time by adults and old people, the extension of the period of education of the young, changes in the school system, and problems of cultivating and educating adults. All these problems are considered not from the point of view of a defined program for their solution, but as an analysis of the factual situation as it exists. In the third part, the means of carrying out the necessary social studies are discussed. These problems are closely linked with social psychology, and require an accurate analysis of facts, often by statistical methods, and the practical ability of influencing the masses. In considering them, the question, among others, must be solved, whether leisure time should be spent individually, or colllecti-vely. The second type of solution is, of course, the rule, although many pastimes and sports are almost individual activities. Another difficult and complicated question concerns the services or institutions required by individuals or groups in spending leisure time, and whether these should be free, or partly charged for. Since the rational employment of leisure time from professional work is fast becoming a serious social problem, the ingérence of the State in this field becomes necessary. Specific means and methods are required for the realization of the planned objectives. Finally, the question arises, how the results shall be evaluated. The answer is 'made difficult by the fact that economic calculation only rarely is applicable, and the various measures taken and investments are not profit-making. In spite of these difficulties, it is necessary to find some method, even if in general outline only, of assessing the reasonableness of the measures undertaken, and of correcting plans and evaluating the results achieved. (original abstract)
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Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu
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  2. Le service obligation de travail en Bulgarie. B. I. T., Genève 1921
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  4. Reforma Szkolnictwa w ZSRR, opr. M. Pęcherski, Warszawa 1959
  5. Rocznik Statystyczny, 1958, Główny Urząd Statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, s. 38
  6. M. Siemieński, Budżet czasu pracownika a możliwości jego uczestnictwa w działalności kulturalno-oświatowej. Maszynopis, s. 85.
  7. W. Styś, Współzależność rozwoju rodziny chłopskiej i jej gospodarstwa, Wrocław 1959.
  8. T. Veblen, The Theory of Leisure Class, 1899
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