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Autor
Kruszka Michał (Poznań University of Economics, Poland)
Tytuł
Trade in Tourism Services : Commitments of new EU Member States under GATT
Źródło
Journal of International Studies, 2008, vol. 1, nr 1, s. 103-116, rys., tab., bibliogr. 18 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Turystyka, Handel usługami, Usługi turystyczne
Tourism, Services trade, Tourism services
Uwagi
summ.
Firma/Organizacja
Układ Ogólny w Sprawie Handlu Usługami, Unia Europejska (UE)
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), European Union (EU)
Kraj/Region
Ukraina
Ukraine
Abstrakt
One of the core treaties signed by members of the World Trade Organization is General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). This is the first multilateral and legally enforceable liberalisation agreement covering trade in services, including tourism, aims to eliminate discriminatory barriers to service trade and increase markets for investment. The subject of considerable controversy, the GATS has been criticised by human rights, environmental and developing world activist groups, many of whom see it as nothing more than a front for corporate domination of global markets. Supporters, on the other hand, see the GATS potential in overcoming trade disputes and hold out the promise of regional development and employment through increased foreign investment. This paper aims to outline the GATS, examine its legal principles and explain the enthusiasm of its supporters and the concerns of the critics, especially in the context of situation of new EU members states. Furthermore, it considers the potential impact of the GATS on sustainability tourism. Ukraine applied for WTO membership in 1993, and the Working Party concluded the negotiations on 25 January 2008 under the chairmanship of Chile's Ambassador Mario Matus. The General Council approved the Working Party report, the market access schedules on goods and services, the General Council Decision and the Protocol of Accession. After several years of economic reforms and multilateral negotiations Ukraine became the WTO's 152nd member on 16 May 2008. It is very important for future Ukraine's economic and trade policy to gather information about past experiences of priors WTO's members concerning the impact of liberalization on tourism. (original abstract)
Pełny tekst
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Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Adlung R., Carzaniga A., Hoekman B., Kono M., Mattoo A., Tuthill L., (2002), The GATS, Key Features and Sectors in: B. Hoekman, A. Mattoo, P. English, eds., Development, Trade, and the WTO. A Handbook, Washington, The World Bank.
  2. Adlung R., Roy M., (2005), Turning Hills into Mountains? Current Commitments Under the GATS and Prospects for Change, Economic Research and Statistics Division, WTO, Staff Working Paper ERSD-2005-01.
  3. Bendell J., Font X., (2004), Which Tourism Rules? Green Standards and GATS, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 31, 139 - 156.
  4. Carzaniga A., (2003), The GATS, Mode 4, and Pattern of Commitments in: A. Matoo, A. Carzaniga, eds., Moving People to Deliver Services, Washington, The World Bank.
  5. Dahles H., (2002), The Politics of Tour Guiding. Image Management in Indonesia, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 29, 783-800.
  6. Font X., Bendell J., (2002), Standards for Sustainable Tourism for the Purpose of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, report issued by World Tourism Organization, Madrid.
  7. Hoad D., (2003), The General Agreement on Trade in Services and the Impact of Trade Liberalisation on Tourism and Sustainability, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 4, 213 - 227.
  8. Hoekman B. M.; Kostecki M. M., (2001), The Political Economy of the World Trading System. The WTO and Beyond, Oxford, NY, Oxford University Press.
  9. Karsenty G., (2000), Assessing Trade in Services by Mode of Supply in: P. Sauve, R. M. Stern, eds., GATS 2000. New Directions in Services Trade Liberalization, Washington
  10. Kruszka M., (2005a), Międzynarodowy handel usługami, Wiadomości Statystyczne, vol. XLX, No 2, 56 - 70.
  11. Kruszka M., (2005b), GATS Commitments and Movement of Natural Persons in CEE countries, in: Sixth International Conference on 'Enterprise in Transition', Proceedings, Faculty of Economics Split, Split-Bol, May 26-28, 2005, pp. 409-424.
  12. Lindner A., (2005), International Indicators of Trade and Economic Linkages, The 6th OECD International Trade Statistics Expert Meeting (ITS) and OECD - Eurostat Meeting of Experts in Trade in Services Statistics (TIS), Paris, OECD.
  13. OECD, (2003): Stylised Facts on Trade in Services in South Eastern European (SEE) Countries, CCNM/TD/SEE(2003)3/FINAL, Paris: OECD.
  14. Tourism Concern, (2002), GATS and the Tourism Industry, The Bulletin of Tourism Concern's Fair Trade in Tourism Network, Issue 3, London.
  15. Tourism Satellite Account, Recommended Methodological Framework, WTO/OMT, UNSD, EUROSTAT, OECD, UN document ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F/80, UN Publishing, NY, 2001.
  16. UNWTO, (2006), Tourism Market Trends, Madrid, World Tourism Organization.
  17. World Bank, (2005), World Development Indicators, Washington, The World Bank.
  18. WTTC, (2006), The 2006 Travel and Tourism Economic Research, London, WTTC.
Cytowane przez
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ISSN
2071-8330
Język
eng
URI / DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.14254/2071-8330.2008/1-1/10
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