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Autor
Bentkowska-Kiczor Magdalena (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie, doktorant)
Tytuł
Zjawisko lobbingu i jego normatywna regulacja w USA
The Phenomenon of Lobbying and the Relevant Regulations in the USA
Źródło
Studia Iuridica Lublinensia, 2008, t. 11, s. 123-135
Słowa kluczowe
Lobbing, Regulacje prawne
Lobbying, Legal regulations
Uwagi
summ.
Kraj/Region
Stany Zjednoczone Ameryki
United States of America (USA)
Abstrakt
Na początku artykułu opisano kształtowanie się zjawiska lobbingu w Stanach Zjednoczonych. Przedstawiono rodzaje lobbingu oraz jego regulacje prawne. Na koniec zaprezentowano analizę porównawczą lobbingu w USA na podstawie wybranych stanów.

The article touches upon the issue of law creation in the environment of democratic institutions. The United States is presented as a background of development and functioning of lobbying institutions, participation of pressure groups in law creation or solving specific problems. Basing on those examples, the article presents a history of development of pressure groups, the forms they have assumed to exert pressure, in particular on legislators. The article also refers to US regulations (FARA 1938, Legislation Reorganization Act 1046, Lobbying Disclosure Act 1995), providing a framework for operation of a multi-thousand-strong army of lobbyists who follow the law and act in a transparent manner, without being suspected of corruption. The article presents the issue of lobbying, guiding the reader to various forms of strategies applied by pressure groups. Stress is also put on the issue of socialization of the administrative legislative process, including the extent of participation of interest groups in the law creation process. In the world of today, due to the complexity of contemporary democratic systems - it is the interest groups that are to convince public authorities to recognize the particular interests of an association, a group of enterprises, or a professional group, as public interests. In the United States, the participation of social forces in law development is very common. That provides for a possibility to learn about local, state, and national legislative proposals as well as provides for a pipeline to provide social opinions to the decision makers. This way, the drafted bills become more comprehensive as they provide for suggestions presented at public hearings. No doubt, lobbying played an important role in the areas of economy and territory -during the early days of the United States. At the end of the 19th century and by mid-20th century, lobbying left its mark in social transformations. Law creation by representative bodies is an undisputed value of a democratic state of the law. (original abstract)
Dostępne w
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach
Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Andrusiewicz L. (praca zespołowa), Lobbing na świecie, Biuro Studiów i Analiz, Warszawa 1994, s. 2.
  2. Christianson P.C., Cure C., Erickson J.C., Poliakoff E.E., Lobbying, PACS and the Campaign Finance, 50 State Handbook, St. Paul Minn. 1998, s. 1.
  3. Gerber E.R., Interest Group Influence in the California Initiative Process, Public Policy Institute of California, 1998, s. 7.
  4. Guyer R.L., Guide to State Legislative Lobbying, Engineering THE LAW Inc., 2003, s. 7.
  5. Hamilton A., Madison J., Jay J., Federalist, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ. Press, Warszawa 1966, s. 130.
  6. Hrebenar R.J., Scott R.K., Interest Group Politics in America, Prentice Hall, Inc. 1990, s. 8.
  7. Jasiecki K., Molęda-Zdziech M., Kurczewska U., Lobbing, Dom Wydawniczy ABC, Warszawa 2000, s. 13.
  8. Kollman K., Outside Lobbying. Public Opinion and Interest Group Strategies, Princeton 1998, s. 6.
  9. Leviatan S.A., Cooper M.R., Business Lobbies, the Public Good & the Bottom Line, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984, s. 47.
  10. Lobbing 5-ta władza, Biuro Studiów i Ekspertyz, Kancelaria Sejmu, Warszawa 1994, s. 3.
  11. Lobbying in the US, Congress Research Studies (CRS) Report for Congress, Washington 1991, s. 4.
  12. Maskell J., Legal and Congressional Ethics Standards of Relevance to Those Who Lobby Congress, SRS Report for Congress, The Library of Congress, Washington 1996, s. 3.
  13. Memorandum of the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995.
  14. Raport Kongres I grupy nacisku: lobbing w nowoczesnej demokracji, US Government Printing Office, Washington 1986, s.V.
  15. Sachs R.C., Foreign Interest Lobbying, Congressional Research Service Library of Congress, Washington 1991, s. 2.
  16. Ustawy o lobbingu, Biuro Studiów i Ekspertyz , Kancelaria Sejmu, Warszawa 1994, s. 1.
  17. Wilson W., Congressional Government, Ohio World Publishing Comp., Cleveland 1956, s. 132.
Cytowane przez
Pokaż
ISSN
1731-6375
Język
pol
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