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Kuhl Karol (University of Warsaw, Poland)
Income Mobility, Unemployment and GDP
Emergo. Journal of Transforming Economies and Societies, 2003, vol. 10, no. 3, s. 32-43, tab., bibliogr. 17 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Dochody ludności, Mobilność dochodowa, Bezrobocie, Produkt krajowy brutto (PKB)
People's income, Income mobility, Unemployment, Gross domestic product (GDP)
The aim of this paper is to explore macro-economic factors of income mobility. Wodon (2001) shows that the correlation between earnings mobility and economic growth depends on the type of labour market adjustments: in quantity-adjusting economies like Argentina, mobility is negatively correlated with economic growth, whereas in price-adjusting economies like Mexico, this correlation is positive. Two issues are of interest here:
• Would the results change if incomes instead of earnings were used?
• Is there a "universal" relationship between economic growth and income mobility once unemployment is taken into account?
The first question is answered in a discussion, and the second question is answered by means of data analysis. International income mobility data are used in an attempt to test a simple theoretical model and not for the purpose of comparison of mobility patterns across countries. The remaining sections of the paper are organized as follows. A model linking relative income mobility and macroeconomic output is presented in section II. Section III contains a description of the data, briefly describes five measures of mobility, and presents the econometric setting of analysis along with estimation results. Section IV provides some conclusions. (fragment of text)
Dostępne w
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie
Biblioteka Szkoły Głównej Handlowej w Warszawie
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu
  1. Aaberge, R., Bjórklund, A., Janti, M., Palme, M., Pedersen, P. J., Smith, N. and Wennemo, T. (2002) "Income Inequality and Income Mobility in the Scandinavian Countries Compared to the United States". The Review of Income and Wealth 48 (4): 443-69
  2. Bartholomew, D. J. (1973) Stochastic Models for Social Processes. Second Edition. London-New York-Sydney-Toronto: John Wiley & Sons
  3. Buchinsky, M. and Hunt, J. (1999) "Wage Mobility in the United States". The Review of Economics and Statistics 81 (3): 351-68
  4. Bogomolova, T. and Tapilina, V. (1999) "Income Mobility in Russia in the mid-1990s". Economic Education and Research Consortium Working Paper No. 11
  5. Canto, O. (2000) "Income Mobility in Spain: How Much is There?". Review of Income and Wealth 9 (4): 331-49.
  6. Fabig, H. (1999) "Income Mobility and the Welfare State". lournal of European Social Policy 9 (4): 331-49
  7. Fields, G. S. and Ok, E. A. (1999) "The Measurement of Income Mobility: An Introduction to the Literature" in J. Silber (ed.) Handbook on Income Inequality Measurement. Boston-Dordrecht-London: Kluver Academic Publishers
  8. Górecki, B. and Kuhl, K. (2002) "Czynniki ruchliwości dochodowej w krajach transformacji gospodarczej" [Income mobility factors in transition economies]. Ekonomia 7: 3-12
  9. Hauser, R. and Fabig, H. (1999) "Labor Earnings and Household Income Mobility in Reunified Germany: A Comparison of the Eastern and Western States". Review of Income and Wealth 45 (3): 303-24
  10. Hauser, R. and Wagner, G. G. (2002) "Economics of Personal Distribution of Income" in K. F. Zimmerman (ed.) Frontiers of Economics. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag
  11. Headey, B. and Muffels, R. (1999) "Up and Down: The Rich, the Poor and Income Mobility". Institute of Public Affairs Review, 3-6 December
  12. Hungerford, T. L. (1993) "US Income Mobility in the Seventies and Eighties". Review of Income and Wealth 39 (4): 403-17
  13. Jarvis, S. and Jenkins, S. P. (1998) "How Much Income Mobility is There in Britain?". The Economic lournal 108: 428-43
  14. Lillard, L. A. and Willis, R. J. (1978) "Dynamic Aspects of Earning Mobility". Econometrics 46 (5): 985-1012
  15. Schiller, B. R. (1977) "Relative Earnings Mobility in the United States". The American Economic Review 67 (5): 376-93
  16. Shorrocks, A. F. (1978) "Income Inequality and Income Mobility". lournal of Economic Theory 19: 376-93
  17. Wodon, Q. (2001) "Income Mobility and Risk During the Business Cycle: Comparing Adjustments in Labor Markets in Two Latin-American Countries". Economics of Transition 9 (2): 449-61
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