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Titus Ray (Alliance School of Business, Alliance University, India)
Enabling Social Justice through Progressive Taxation in 'Discriminated' Societies
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences (ILSHS), 2013, vol. 5, s. 45-54, tab., bibliogr. 16 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Podatki, Podatek progresywny, Dyskryminacja, Nierówności społeczne, Sprawiedliwość społeczna
Taxes, Progressive tax, Discrimination, Social inequality, Social justice
The advocates of taxes point to its legitimacy as derived from the need for government to work for the people. Those who oppose taxes call it a burden imposed on the people, benefitting none than those in government and bureaucracy. The latter who advocate free markets believe the "invisible hand‟ to be the better arbitrator to social justice. To put the debate on taxes in perspective, it is important to consider the need for social justice against a backdrop of societies that have practiced discrimination based on caste. Such societies stratify people by birth based on the castes they are born into. Caste based discrimination on its part has systematically ensured subjection of certain classes, with minimal access to fundamental rights. This in turn has ensured such classes live their lives in near penury. This research paper looks at class based discrimination as a preceding social more in the demand for progressive taxation. (original abstract)
Pełny tekst
  1. Acharya, Sanghamitra (2010), 'Access to Healthcare and patterns of discrimination: A Study of Dalit children in selected villages of Gujarat and Rajasthan', Working Paper, Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.
  2. Barth Fredrik (1971), "The System of Social Stratification in Swat, North Pakistan" in E.R. Leach (ed.), Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon and North West Pakistan, pp. 113-148, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Cohn B. (1996), Colonialism and its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  4. Dalit Solidarity Network (2006), 'The Caste System in India - A brief overview: Economic Social exclusion, and the Ambedkar principles of Employment'.
  5. Hofer Andras (2005), The Caste Hierarchy and the State in Nepal, A Study of the Muluki Ain of 1854, First published 1979, Reprint 2005, Himal Books: Lalitpur, Nepal. (1971), "Caste in Jaffna" in E.R. Leach (ed.) (1971), Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon and North West Pakistan, pp 61-77, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  6. Economist (2008), 'Clean-up: How to abolish a dirty, low-status job.', July Edition.
  7. Jaffrelot Christopher (2009), 'Dr. Ambedkar's Strategies Against Untouchability and the Caste System'. Working Paper, Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.
  8. James E. Meade (1952), A Geometry of International Trade (London: Allen & Unwin), p. 112.
  9. Jodhka Surinder (2010), 'Dalits in Business: Self Employed Scheduled Castes in North India', Working Paper, Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.
  10. Jodhka Surinder, Shah Ghanshyam (2010), 'Comparative Contexts of Discrimination: Caste and Untouchability in South Asia', Working Paper, Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.
  11. John Rawls (1971), A Theory of Justice, p. 102.
  12. Leach E.R. (1960), "Introduction: What should we mean by caste?" in E.R. Leach (Ed.), Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon and North West Pakistan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  13. Munshi K., M. Rosenweig (2005), Why is Mobility in India so Low? Social Insurance, Inequality, and Growth. Cambridge: Harvard BREAD Working Paper No. 097.
  14. Narasimhchary M. (2002), 'The Caste System - An overview', IK Foundation Lecture series.
  15. Sarabhai M. (2010), 'India's secret shame', The Week, October Edition.
  16. Sowell M. (2010), 'On Taxes, rhetoric of deception rules', Redding.
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