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Autor
Caddy Joanne (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), Vári Anna (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary)
Tytuł
Environmental Policy in Hungary : The Role of Civil Society
Źródło
Emergo. Journal of Transforming Economies and Societies, 2003, vol. 10, no. 2, s. 66-78, bibliogr. 26 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Ochrona środowiska, Prawne aspekty ochrony środowiska, Społeczeństwo obywatelskie, Integracja gospodarcza i polityczna Europy
Environmental protection, Environmental protection regulations, Civic society, Economic and political integration of Europe
Kraj/Region
Węgry
Hungary
Abstrakt
Before the 1990s, environmental policy in Hungary was reactive with respect to environmental threats, closed to public input, based upon command-and-control measures and supported by a largely meaningless system of fines which were collected from state owned enterprises (SOEs) by the state itself. (...) Among the factors which reduced the effectiveness of environmental policy were: the imperatives of economic development under the command economy, the limited influence enjoyed by proponents of environmental protection within party circles, low public awareness and limited capacity for "voice". (...) Environmental policy-making under transi-tion has suffered from a different set of constraints, foremost among which are the low political salience of environmental issues with respect to pressing socio-economic concerns and drastic budget cuts. (fragment of text)
Dostępne w
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie
Biblioteka Szkoły Głównej Handlowej
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu
Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Bochniarz, Z. and Kerekes, S. (1994) "Deficiencies in the Existing System of Environmental Protection in Hungary" in Z. Bochniarz, R. Bolan, S. Kerekes and J. Kindler (eds) Designing Institutions for Sustainable Development in Hungary: Agenda for the Future. Minneapolis-Budapest
  2. Caddy, J. (1999) "Hungary's Legislative and Institutional Framework for Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making" in A. Vâri and J. Caddy (eds) Public Participation in Environmental Decisions: Recent Developments in Hungary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadö, pp. 17-33
  3. Caddy, J. and Vâri, A. (1999) "Public Participation in Environmental Decisions: Experiences, Trends and Lessons" in A. Vâri and J. Caddy (eds) Public Participation in Environmental Decisions: Recent Developments in Hungary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadö, pp. 181-92
  4. Commission of the European Communities (1997a) "Agenda 2000: Commission Opinions on Applications for Membership of the European Union". Brussels: European Commission, 15 July
  5. Commission of the European Communities (1997b) "Agenda 2000: Reinforcing the Pre-Accession Strategy". Vol. II, DOC 97/7. Brussels: European Commission, 15 July
  6. Commission of the European Communities (1997c) "Enlarging the Environment: A Newsletter from the European Commission on Environmental Approximation". Issue No. 5. Brussels: European Commission (DG XI), July
  7. Commission of the European Communities (2001) "Regular Report from the Commission on Hungary's Progress Towards Accession". Brussels: European Commission, 13 November
  8. Galambos, J. (1993) "An International Environmental Conflict on the Danube: The Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dams" in A. Vâri and P. Tamas (eds) Environmental Anti-democratic Transition: Policy and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer, pp. 176-226
  9. Government of Hungary (1994) "Act LXV of 1990 on Local Governments". Hungarian Rules of Law in Force V (24), 15 December
  10. Government of Hungary (1995) "Act LIII on General Rules of Environmental Protection". Hungarian Rules of Law in Force VL (17), 1 September
  11. Haaland Matlâry, J. (1994) "The European Union and the Visegrâd Countries: The Case of Energy and Environmental Policies in Hungary". Regional Politics and Policy, Special Issue: Protecting the Periphery: Environmental Policy in Peripheral Regions of the European Union 4 (1): 136-52
  12. Jänicke, M. (1997) "The Political System's Capacity for Environmental Policy" in M. Jänicke and H. Weidner (eds) National Environmental Policies: A Comparative Study of Capacity-Building. Berlin: Springer
  13. KTM (1995) "Environmental Policy and Institutions of the Republic of Hungary: National Report for the OECD". Budapest: Ministry of Environment and Regional Policy, March
  14. PHARE (1996) "The Plzare Programme Annual Report 1995". COM (96) 360 final. Brussels: European Commission, 23 July
  15. REC (1994a) Manual on Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making. Current Practice and Future Possibilities in Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest: Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe
  16. REC (1994b) Strategic Environmental Issues in Central and Eastern Europe: Vol. 2: Environmental Needs Assessment in Ten Countries. Budapest: Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe
  17. REC (1994c) National Environmental Protection Funds in Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest: Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, November
  18. REC (1994d) Use of Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy in Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest: Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, December
  19. REC (1995a) Emerging Environmental Market Survey: Vol. 1. Budapest: Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe
  20. REC (1995b) Government and Environment: A Directory of Governmental Organizations with Environmental Responsibilities for Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest: Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, September
  21. REC (1996) Approximation of European Union Environmental Legislation: Case Studies of Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. Budapest: Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, January
  22. REC (1997) Problems, Progress and Possibilities: A Needs Assessment of Environmental NGOs in Central and Eastern Europe. Budapest: Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, April
  23. Szirmai, V. (2000) Environmental Interests in Hungary [in Hungarian]. Budapest: Pallas
  24. Vari, A. (1995) "Environmental Policy in Hungary: History and Plans". International Journal of Comparative Sociology and Anthropology 1 (1): 116-31
  25. Vari, A. (1999) "New Approaches to Conflict Management: Siting a Spent Fuel Storage Facility in Paks" in A. Vari and J. Caddy (eds) Public Participation in Environmental Decisions: Recent Developments in Hungary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, pp. 57-70
  26. Weidner, H. (1997) "Implementation of EU Environmental Legislation: The Theoretical Perspective". Presentation at the 1997 Spring Workshop "Implementing EU Environmental Policy". Working Group on Environmental Studies, Robert Schumann Centre, European University Institute, 10-11 April, Florence
Cytowane przez
Pokaż
ISSN
1233-3115
Język
eng
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