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Autor
Sitera Daniel (University of Wrocław, Poland)
Tytuł
The Transnationalization of Railway in the Czech Republic: an Instititutional Travel from Formal to Informal Monopoly?
Transnacjonalizacja kolei w Republice Czeskiej: instytucjonalny przeskok od monopolu formalnego do nieformalnego?
Źródło
Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Bankowej we Wrocławiu, 2014, nr 1 (39), s. 169-194, bibliogr. 93 poz.
Tytuł własny numeru
Challenges and Conceptions in Contemporary Logistics ; Wyzwania i koncepcje współczesnej logistyki
Słowa kluczowe
Transport kolejowy, Komunikacja kolejowa, Liberalizacja transportu
Railway transport, Rail transportation, Transport liberalization
Uwagi
streszcz., summ.
Kraj/Region
Czechy
Czech Republic
Abstrakt
W niniejszym artykule skoncentrowano się na niejasności liberalizacji w Republice Czeskiej. W swej oczywistej formie proces liberalizacji - kiedy już zostanie uruchomiony - przybierałby trajektorię opartą na ścieżce zależności i prowadziłby do zliberalizowanego rynku przewozów kolejowych. Natomiast liberalizacja kolei czeskich zaowocowała czymś, co w niniejszym opracowaniu nazwano monopolem wyrównawczym. Obejmuje on nieformalne działania, które pozwoliły państwu czeskiemu przekształcić przedsiębiorstwo Ćeske drahy w faktyczny monopol, podczas gdy w rzeczywistości przewoźnik państwowy stracił formę monopolu pod względem prawnym. lak stwierdzono w artykule, liberalizacja stanowi produkt transnacjonalizacji państwa czeskiego poprzez absorpcję w globalną gospodarkę, a przede wszystkim Unię Europejską. Jako państwo kandydujące, a następnie członkowskie, Republika Czeska była zobowiązana do przyjęcia kolejowego acquis commimautaire wypracowanego w ramach Unii Europejskiej, co spowodowało konsekwentną transnacjonalizację czeskich kolei państwowych. Ze względu na swój transnacjnalistyczny, a jednocześnie rynkowy charakter uregulowania dotyczące kolei całkowicie zrestrukturyzowały także formalne otoczenie instytucjonalne czeskich kolei, włączając w to społeczny cel przewoźnika Ćeske drahy, który nie ma już służyć interesowi publicznemu, lecz raczej przestrzegać rynkowej logiki interesu przedsiębiorstwa. Niemniej jednak przyjęcie acquis nie okazało się bezkonfliktowe. Przeciwnie, dotychczasowe otoczenie instytucjonalne jest nadal reprezentowane przez związek państwa i przewoźnika Ćeske drahy, który miał być próbą przekształcenia liberalizacji w taki sposób, aby wspomóc Ćeske drahy wystarczającą ilością kapitału oraz czasu, i tym samym przygotować do konkurowania na zliberalizowanym rynku kolejowym. Rezultat tych nieformalnych praktyk, którego ucieleśnieniem stał się monopol wyrównawczy, udowodnił, że liberalizacja kolei czeskich okazała się zmianą instytucjonalną, której efekty są nierównomierne, nie do końca wiadome, a także na pozór sprzeczne.(abstrakt oryginalny)

This paper focuses on the unobviousness of railway liberalization in the Czech Republic. In its obvious form, the liberalization process, once set into motion, would assume a path-dependent trajectory and result in a liberalized railway market. The liberalization of Czech railway has however resulted in what this paper calls a compensatory monopoly. Compensatory monopoly depicts an informal practice which has allowed the Czech state to compensate the Ćeske drahy (Czech Railways) with a de facto monopoly, while depriving the public rail operator of a de iure monopoly. As the paper claims, the railway liberalization has been a product of the transnationaiization of Czech state through its absorption into the global economy and European Union above all. As an accession candidate and later member state of the European Union, the Czech state was obliged to internalize the railway acquis communautaire produced by the European Commission which has consequently transnationalized the Czech national railway. Due to its transnationalizing and simultaneously marketizing character, the railway acquis has also completely restructured the formal institutional setting of the Czech railway, including the social purpose of Ćeske drahy which is no longer to serve the public interest, but rather abide by the market-based logic of business interest. Nonetheless, the acquis internalization has not remained uncontested. On the contrary, the old institutional setting has been further represented by the informal network of Ćeske drahy-state nexus which attempted to reshape the liberalization in a way that would provide Ćeske drähy with a patient capital and enough time to prepare for the competition on the liberalized railway market. The effect of informal practices embodied in the compensatory monopoly has thus proven the railway liberalization in the Czech Republic to be an institutional change with uneven, open-ended and seemingly contradictory outcomes.(original abstract)
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Bibliografia
Pokaż
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ISSN
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Język
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