BazEkon - Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie

BazEkon home page

Meny główne

Autor
Garba Abubakar S. (Kano State Polytechnic, Nigeria), Djafar Fariastuti (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia), Abu Mansor Shazali (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia)
Tytuł
Evidence of Opportunity and Necessity Driven Entrepreneurship in Nigeria
Źródło
Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation (JEMI), 2013, vol. 9, nr 3, s. 57-78, aneks, tab., bibliogr. 54 poz.
Tytuł własny numeru
Entrepreneurial Orientation and Opportunities
Słowa kluczowe
Ubóstwo, Bezrobocie, Rozwój przedsiębiorczości, Produkt krajowy brutto (PKB)
Poverty, Unemployment, Entrepreneurship development, Gross domestic product (GDP)
Uwagi
streszcz., summ.
Kraj/Region
Nigeria
Nigeria
Abstrakt
Celem artykułu jest zbadanie wpływu ubóstwa, bezrobocia i PKB na przedsiębiorczość. Dla potrzeb tej analizy zgromadzono dane za okres trzydziestu jeden lat wykorzystując rozmaite oficjalne źródła. Zastosowano model wektorowej autoregresji (VAR), aby systematycznie ująć bogatą dynamikę wielokrotnych serii czasowych. Inne przeprowadzone testy obejmowały jednostkowy test pierwiastka, test ko-integracji Johansena i Juseliusa (1990), Model przyczynowości Grangera i analizę dynamicznego modelu wykraczającą poza próbkę. Okazało się, że ubóstwo i PKB negatywnie wpływają na przedsiębiorczość, natomiast bezrobocie ma na nią wpływ pozytywny. Artykuł ujawnia zarówno obecność przedsiębiorców wykorzystujących możliwości, jak i tych z konieczności w badanym państwie. Istnieje potrzeba, aby rząd dokonał rewizji swojej polityki dotyczącej mikro-, małych ¡średnich przedsiębiorstw aby odpowiednio zareagować na problem ludzi biednych i bezrobotnych, dając im możliwość zaangażowania się w przedsiębiorczość. Przyszłe badania powinny zająć się zminimalizowaniem efektu częstego rozpoczynania i kończenia działalności przedsiębiorczej, tak by prawidłowo przewidzieć wpływ przedsiębiorczości na gospodarkę. (abstrakt oryginalny)

The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of poverty, unemployment and GDP on entrepreneurship. Time series data for 31 years was collected from various official sources for the analysis. Vector autoregressive (VAR) framework was adopted to systematically capture the rich dynamic of multiple time series. Other tests conducted were unit root test, Johansen and Juselius (1990) co-integration test, Granger causality and dynamic model analysis beyond the sample. It was found that poverty and GDP influence entrepreneurship negatively, while unemployment influences entrepreneurship positively. The paper reveals the presence of both opportunity and necessity driven entrepreneurs in the country. There is a need for the government to revisit the existing policy on micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to adequately address the problem of the poor and unemployed by availing them with the opportunity to engage in entrepreneurship. Future study should consider mitigating the effect of frequent entry and exit from entrepreneurship in their data to correctly predict the effect of entrepreneurship on the economy. (original abstract)
Dostępne w
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach
Pełny tekst
Pokaż
Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Acs, Z. J. (2007). How entrepreneurship is good for economic growth ? a paper presented at the 25th economic conference of progress foundation co-sponsored by American Institute for Economic Research (AIER) in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
  2. Acs,Z.J., Desai,S., Hessels, J. (2008). Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions. Small Business Economics, 31, 219-234.
  3. Akoum, I.F. (2008). Globalization, growth, and poverty: The missing link. International Journal of Social Economics, 35(4), 226-238.
  4. Audrestch, D.B., Thurik, A.R. (2000). Capitalism and democracy in the 21st century: From the managed to the entrepreneurial economy. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 10,17-34.
  5. Audretsch, D.B., Carree, M.A., Thurik, A.R. (2001). Does entrepreneurship reduce unemployment? Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper Tl 2001074/3, Rotterdam.
  6. Audretsch, D.B., Fritsch, M. (1994). The geography of firm births in Germany, Regional Studies, 28[4), 359-365.
  7. Audretsch, D.B., Keilbach, M. (2004). Entrepreneurship capital: Determinants and impact on regional economic performance, MPI Discussion Paper No. 3704. Jena: Max Planck Institute of Economics.
  8. Audretsch, D.B., Jin, J. (1994). a reconciliation of the unemployment: New firms start up paradox. Small Business Economics, 6,381-385.
  9. Bahmain-Oskooee, M. (1995). The long run determinants of the US trade balance revisited. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 17(3), 457- 465.
  10. Block, J., Sandner P. (2009). Necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs and their duration in self- employment: Evidence from German micro data. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 9,117-137.
  11. Bosma, N., Acs, Z.J., Autio, E., Coduras, A., Levie, J. (2008). Executive report. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM).
  12. Carree, M. (2002). Does unemployment affect the number of establishments? a regional analysis for U.S. states, Regional Studies, 36(4), 389-398.
  13. Carree, M.A., van Stel, A.J., Thurik, A.R., Wennekers, A.R.M.(2002). Economic development and business ownership: An analysis using data of 230ECD countries in the period 1976-1996. Small Business Economics, 1,271-290.
  14. Evans, D.S., Leighton, L.S. (1989). Some empirical aspects of entrepreneurship. American Economic Review, 79, 519-535.
  15. Evans, D.S., Leighton, L.S. (1990). Small business formation by unemployed and employed workers. Small Business Economics, 2(4), 319-330.
  16. Faria, J.R., Cuestas, J.C., Mourelle, E. (2010). Entrepreneurship and unemployment: a non-linear bidirectional causality. Economic Modelling, 27(5),1282-1291.
  17. Garofi, G. (1994). New firm formation and regional development: The Italian case. Regional Studies, 28[4), 381-394.
  18. Gujarati, D.N., Porter, D.C. (2009). Basic econometrics. Singapore: McGraw- Hill Companies Inc.
  19. Hamilton, R.T. (1989). Unemployment and business formation rates: Reconciling time Series and Cross Section Evidence. Environment and Planning, 21, 249-255.
  20. Hartog, C. Parker, S., Stel, A., Thurik, R. (2010). The two way relationship between entrepreneurship and economic performance. EIM research report H200822, July 2010.
  21. Highfield, R., Smiley, R. (1987). New business starts and economic activity: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 5, 51-66.
  22. Johansen and Jesulius (1990). Maximum likelihood estimation and inference on cointegration with application to the demand for money. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52,169-244.
  23. Jones-Evans, D., Brookbark, D., Aaron, E. (2006). Public support programmes for high growth business in the UK. An exploratory Study. National Entrepreneurship Observatory, GEM Wales paper series No 7.
  24. Keister, L.A. (2005). Entrepreneurship (Ed.). Netherland: Elsevier Ltd,
  25. Knight, F.H. (1971). Risk, uncertainty, and profit. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, originally published in 1921 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
  26. Koster, S., Kumar Rai, S. (2008). Entrepreneurship and economic development in a developing country: a case study of India .Journal of Entrepreneurship, 17(2), 117-137.
  27. Lafuente, E.M. and Driga, O. (2007). Report on entrepreneurial activities in Romania. CEBR working paper series 01-2007.
  28. Meager, N. (1992). Does unemployment lead to self-employment? Small Business Economics, 4, 87-103.
  29. Mojica-Howell, M.N., Whittaker W.L., Gebremedhin,T.G., Schaeffer, P.V. (2012). Examining the bidirectional relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth: Is entrepreneurship endogenous?, Entrepreneurship - born, made and educated, Prof. Thierry Burger-Helmchen (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0210-6, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen. com/books.
  30. Mulira, F., Namatovu, R., Dawa, S. (2011). Panacea or Precipitate. "The Entrepreneurship and Poverty Paradox". Retrieved from www.aibuma. org/proceedings.
  31. Naude, W., Amoros, J.E., Cristi, O. (2012). Surfeiting, the appetite may sicken: entrepreneurship and the happiness of nations. UNU MERIT working paper 2012-013.
  32. NBS (2010). The review of the Nigerian economy. National Bureau of Statistics.
  33. Plehn- Dujowich, J.M. (2012). The dynamic relationship between entrepreneurship, unemployment and growth: Evidence from US Industries, SBA research report No 394.
  34. Reynolds, P., Storey, D.J., Westhead, P. (1994). Cross national comparisons of the variation in new firm formation rate. Regional Studies, 28(A), 443- 456.
  35. Ritchie, B., Lam, W. (2006). Taking the stock of small business and entrepreneurship research. International Journal Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 12(6),312-327.
  36. Ritsila, J., Tervo, H. (2002). Effects of unemployment on new firm formation: Micro level panel data evidence from Finland. Small Business Economics Journal, 19, 31-40.
  37. Rosa, P.J., Kodithuwakku, S., Balunywa, W. (2006). Entrepreneurial motivation in developing countries: What does "Necessity and opportunity really mean". Frontier of Entrepreneurship Research, 26(20), Chapter XX Micro Entrepreneurship.
  38. Salgado-Banda, H. (2005). Entrepreneurship and economic growth: An empirical analysis. Seminar paper at University of London.
  39. Sexton, D.L. and Kasarda, J.D. (1992). The state of the art of entrepreneurship. PWS - Publishing Company, Boston, USA
  40. Stel, A., Carree, M., Thurik, R. (2004). The effect of entrepreneurship on national economic growth: An analysis using the GEM database. SCALES paper N200320.
  41. Stel, A., Thurik, R., Verheul, I., Baljeu, L. (2007). The relationship between entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan. Tinbergen institute discussion paper, Tl 2007-080/3.
  42. Sternberg, R. and Wennekers, S. (2005). Determinants and effects of new business creation using global entrepreneurship monitor data. Small Business Economics, 24,193-203.
  43. Stock, J.H. and Watson M.W. (2001). Vector autoregressions. Journal of Economic perspective, 15(4), 101-115.
  44. Storey, D.J. (1991). The birth of new firms - does unemployment matter? a review of evidence. Small Business Economic, 3,167-178.
  45. Storey, D.J. (2003). Entrepreneurship: small and medium sized and public policies. Handbook of entrepreneurship research. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 473-511.
  46. Szirmai, A., 2005. Dynamics of socio-economic development: An introduction. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, ISBN: 9780521817639, pp 233.
  47. Thurik, R., Carree. M.A., Stel, A., Audretsch, D.B. (2008). Does self-employment reduce unemployment. Journal of Business Venturing, 23(6),673- 686.
  48. UNIDO (2003). Path out of poverty: Developing rural and women entrepreneurship. United nation industrial development organization, 2003 Vienna.
  49. UNCTAD (2004). Entrepreneurship and economic development: The Empretec show Case. United Nation Conference on Trade and Development Publication January 2004.
  50. Verheul, I., Thurik, R. Hessel,J., vanderZwan, P. (2010). Factors influencing the entrepreneurial engagement of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs. EIM. Retrieved from http://www.entrepreneurship-sme.eu.
  51. Wagner, J. (2005). "Der noth gelorchand, Nicht dem eignen tried"- Necessity and opportunity entrepreneurs in Germany: Evidence from the regional entrepreneurial Monitor. IZA Discussion Paper No 1608.
  52. Wang, S. (2006). Determinant of new firm formation in Taiwan. Small Business Economic, 27,313- 321.
  53. Wennekers, S., Van stel, A, Thurik, R., Reynolds, P. (2005). Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development. Small Business Economics, 24,293-309.
  54. Yamawaki, H. (1990). The effects of business conditions on net entry: Evidence from Japan. In P.A. Geroski and J. Schwalbach (Eds.), Entry and Market Contestability: An International Comparison.Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Cytowane przez
Pokaż
ISSN
2299-7075
Język
eng
Udostępnij na Facebooku Udostępnij na Twitterze Udostępnij na Google+ Udostępnij na Pinterest Udostępnij na LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu