BazEkon - Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie

BazEkon home page

Meny główne

Autor
Nessel Karolina (Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland)
Tytuł
A Born Global Gradually Advancing Its Internationalization - a Case Study of Internationalization Process of a Small Tour Operator in a Niche Market
Źródło
Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation (JEMI), 2013, vol. 9, nr 1, s. 69-95, rys., tab., bibliogr. 89 poz.
Tytuł własny numeru
Entrepeneurship in Tourism and Sport
Słowa kluczowe
Organizacje born global, Małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa, Przedsiębiorstwo turystyczne, Internacjonalizacja, Przedsiębiorczość międzynarodowa, Rynek turystyczny
Born Global, Small business, Tourist enterprises, Internationalization, International entrepreneurship, Tourism market
Uwagi
streszcz., summ.
Abstrakt
Dzisiaj wiele już wiadomo o wzorcach internacjonalizacji małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw (MSP). Jednak dotychczasowe badania skupiały się głównie na internacjonalizacji poprzez eksport oraz dotyczyły bardziej przemysłu niż sektora usług (i w bardzo nikłym stopniu internacjonalizacji firm turystycznych). Dlatego też niniejszy artykuł podejmuje wstępne badania w celu zweryfikowania, w jakim stopniu ogólnie stosowane ramy analizy są przydatne w zrozumieniu ścieżki internacjonalizacji MSP sektora turystycznego. W tym celu dokonane zostaje studium przypadku małego tour operatora w Polsce działającego w niszowym segmencie ślubów za granicą. Badanie zestawia charakterystykę internacjonalizacji firmy z ustaleniami dwóch głównych ujęć teoretycznych internacjonalizacji MSP: modelami stopniowej internacjonalizacji (tzw. modele behawioralne) oraz modelami wczesnej i szybkiej internacjonalizacji (firmy zwane "urodzonymi globalistami") strategii firmy i wiązać się z charakterystyką rynku i produktu (zgodnie z modelami wczesnej i szybkiej internacjonalizacji). Natomiast drugi rodzaj (i etap) działalności międzynarodowej może wynikać z bardziej biernej postawy i wiązać się z minimalnym zaangażowaniem zasobów (zgodnie z modelami internacjonalizacji stopniowej i powolnej). Główne wnioski badania są dwojakie. Po pierwsze, nawet, jeśli powszechnie stosowane ramy analizy całkiem dobrze służą analizie przypadku małego tour operatora, to jednak istnieje wyraźna potrzeba adaptacji tych ram do specyfiki sektora (zwłaszcza w przypadku zdolności organizacyjnych). Po drugie, dalsze badania powinny uwzględnić także niejednorodność międzynarodowych działań firmy (w zakresie ich czynników sprawczych jak i przebiegu). Nawet, jeśli firma rodzi się globalistą, jej dalsza internacjonalizacja może jednak przebiegać stopniowo. W szczególności, wczesna i szybka internacjonalizacja poprzez import może prowadzić do stopniowej, etapowej internacjonalizacji przez eksport. Ten pierwszy rodzaj (i etap) działalności międzynarodowej firmy może wynikać z aktywnej postawy wobec internacjonalizacji, być istotą strategii firmy i wiązać się z charakterystyką rynku i produktu (zgodnie z modelami wczesnej i szybkiej internacjonalizacji). Natomiast drugi rodzaj (i etap) działalności międzynarodowej może wynikać z bardziej biernej postawy i wiązać się z minimalnym zaangażowaniem zasobów (zgodnie z modelami internacjonalizacji stopniowej i powolnej). (abstrakt oryginalny)

Today much is already known about the internationalization patterns of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). However, the research has mainly focused on outward internationalization and more in manufacturing industry than in services (and hardly in the tourism industry). Thus, the paper undertakes an exploratory research in order to verify to what extent the common framework of analysis may explain an internationalization path of SMEs in the tourism sector. To this goal, a case study of a small tour operator in a niche market of weddings abroad in Poland is undertaken. The research seeks to match the firm's internationalization characteristics with considerations of two dominant theories of SME internationalization: stage models of gradual internationalization (so called behavioral models) and models of early and rapid internationalization (businesses called 'born globals' or 'international new ventures'). The main findings of the study are twofold. Firstly, even if the general framework of the analysis suits a case of a small tour operator well, still there is a need to adapt the general framework to industry features (in particular, in terms of organization capabilities). Secondly, a further research should also take into account heterogeneity of international activities (in terms of their antecedents and process). Even if a firm is born global, its further internationalization may well be incremental in nature. In particular, an early and rapid internationalization through imports may lead to a gradual internationalization through exports. The former may result from a proactive attitude, be strategy driven, and implied by characteristics of the market and product (well in lines with models of an early and rapid internationalization). The latter, however, may stem from a rather passive attitude with almost no resource commitment (more in lines with models of a gradual and slow internationalization). (original abstract)
Dostępne w
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach
Pełny tekst
Pokaż
Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Agndal, H., Elbe, J. (2007). The internationalization process of small and medium-seized Swedish tourism firms. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7 (4), 301- 327.
  2. Andersen, O. (1993). On the internationalization process of firms: A critical analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 24(2), 209-231.
  3. Anderson, E.W., Weitz, B. (1992). The use of pledges to build and sustain commitment in distribution channels. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(1), 18-34.
  4. Anderson, S., Wictor, I. (2003). Innovative internationalisation in new firms: Born globals-theSwedish case .Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1(3), 249-276.
  5. Antoncic, B., Hisrich, R. D. (2000). An integrative conceptual model. Journal of Euromarketing, 9(2), 17-35.
  6. Aspelund, A., Moen, O. (2001), A generation perspective on small firm internationalization: From traditional exporters and flexible specialists to born globals. In: C. Axinn and P. Matthyssens (Eds.) Reassessing the Internationalization of the Firm. Advances in International Marketing, 11, pp.197-225). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  7. Autio, E., Sapienza, H., Almeida, J. (2000), Effects of Age at Entry, Knowledge Intensity, and Imitability on International Growth. Academy of Management Journal, 43 (5), 909-924.
  8. Bell, J., McNaughton, R., Young, S., Crick, D. (2003). Towards an integrative model of small firm internationalisation. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1(4). 339-362.
  9. Bilkey, W., Tesar G. (1977). The export behavior of smaller-sized Wisconsin manufacturing firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1), 9398.
  10. Bonaccorsi, A. (1992). On the relationship between firm size and export intensity. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(4), 605-635.
  11. Caves, R.E. (1971). International corporations: The industrial economics of foreign investment. Economica, 35(149), 1-27.
  12. Cavusgil, S. (1980). On the internationalisation process of firms. European Research, 8(6), 273-281.
  13. Cavusgil, S. (1984). Differences among exporting firms based on their degree of internationalization. Journal of Business Research, 12(2), 95-208.
  14. Chetty, S., Blankenburg-Holm, D. (2000). Internationalisation of small to medium-size manufacturing firms: a network approach. International Business Review, 9(1), 77-93.
  15. Chetty, S., Campbell-Hunt C. (2003). Paths to internationalisation among small-to medium-sized firms: a global versus regional approach. European Journal of Marketing, 37(5/6), 796-820.
  16. Chetty, S.,Campbell-HuntC. (2004). Astrategicapproachtointernationalization: a traditional versus a "Born-Global" approach. Journal of International Marketing, 12(1), 57-81.
  17. Coviello, N. (2006). The network dynamics of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(5), 713-731.
  18. Coviello, N., McAuley, A. (1999). Internationalisation and the smaller firm: a review of contemporary empirical research. Management International Review, 39(3), 223-256.
  19. Coviello, N., Munro H. (1995). Growing the entrepreneurial firm: Networking for international market development. European Journal of Marketing, 29(7), 49-61.
  20. Coviello, N., Munro H. (1997). Network relationships and the international process of small software firms. International Business Review, 6(4), 361386.
  21. Covin, J. G., Slevin, D. P. (1989). Strategic Management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 75-87.
  22. Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  23. Czinkota, M.R. (1982). Export Development Strategies: US promotion policies. New York: Praeger Publishers.
  24. Davidsson, P., Delmar, F., Wiklund, J. (2006). Entrepreneurship as Growth: Growth as Entrepreneurship. In: P. Davidsson, F. Delmar, and J. Wiklund, (Eds.) Entrepreneurship and the Growth of Firms (pp. 21-38). United Kingdom, England, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  25. Dimitratos, P., Johnson. J., Slow, J., Young, S. (2003). Micromultinationals: new types of firms for the global competitive landscape. Management International Review, 39(3), 223-256.
  26. Dimitratos, P., Plakoyiannaki, E., Pitsoulaki, A. (2010). The Global smaller firm in international entrepreneurship. International Business Review, 19(6), 589-606.
  27. Dunning, J.H. (1981). International Production and the Multinational Enterprise. London: Allen and Unwin.
  28. Dwyer, F.R, Schurr, P.H., Oh, S. (1987). Developing buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 11-27.
  29. Ellis, P. (2000). Social ties and foreign market entry. Journal of International Business Studies, 31(3), 443-469.
  30. Fayed, H., Fletcher, J. (2002). Globalisation of economic activity: issues for tourism. Tourism Economics, 8(2), 207-230.
  31. Fillis, I. (2001). Small firm internationalisation: an investigative survey and future research directions. Management Decision, 39(9), 767-783.
  32. Fletcher, R. (2001). A holistic approach to internationalisation. International Business Review, 10 (1), 25-49.
  33. Ford, I.D., Leonidou, L.C. (1991). Research Developments in International Marketing: A European Perspective. In: S.J. Paliwoda (Ed.), New perspectives on international marketing (pp. 3-32). London: Routledge,
  34. Gabrielsson, M., Kirpalani V.H. (2004). Born Globals: how to reach new business space rapidly. International Business Review, 13(5), 555-571.
  35. Hessels J. (2008). InternationalEntrepreneurship: An Introduction, Framework and Research Agenda, Scales Research Reports H200823, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  36. Hjalager, A.M. (2007). Stages in the economic globalization of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 43(2), 437-457.
  37. Hymer, S.H. (1976). The International Operations of National Firms: A Study of Foreign Direct Investment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  38. Ibeh, K.I.N. (2006). Internationalisation and the Smaller Firm. In: S. Carter and D. Evans (Eds.), Enterprise and Small Business. Second Edition (pp. 465484). Harlow: Financial Times and Prentice Hall.
  39. Johanson, J., Vahlne J. (1977), The internationalization process of the firm - a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, 8(1), 23-32.
  40. Johanson, J., Vahlne J. (1990), The mechanism of internationalisation. International Marketing Review, 7(4), 11-24.
  41. Johanson, J., Vahlne J. (2009). The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: from liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9), 1411-1431.
  42. Johanson, J., Wiedersheim-Paul F. (1975). The internationalization of the firm- four cases. Journal of Management Studies, 12(3), 305-322.
  43. Johnson, C., Vanetti, M. (2005). Market Developments in the hotel sector in Eastern Central Europe. Advances in Hospitality and Leisure, 1,153-175.
  44. Kirzner, I. (1979). Perception, Opportunity, and Profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  45. Knight, G.A., Cavusgil, S.T. (1996). The born global firm: a challenge to traditional international theory. Advances in International Marketing, 8, 11-26.
  46. Knight, G.A., Cavusgil, S.T. (2004). Innovation, organization capabilities, and the born-global firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(2), 124-141.
  47. Kundu, S. K., Katz, J.A. (2003). Born-international SMEs: Bi- level impacts of resources and intentions. Small Business Economics, 20(1), 25-47.
  48. Lanfant, M.F. (1995). International Tourism, Internationalization and the Challenge to Identity. In: M.F. Lanfant, J.B. Allock and E.M. Bruner (Eds.) International Tourism: Identity and Change (pp. 24-43). London: Sage.
  49. Leiblein, M., Reuer, J. (2004). Building a foreign sales base: the roles of capabilities and alliances for entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(30), 285-307.
  50. Leonidou, L., Katsikeas, C. (1996). The export development process: an interrogative review of empirical models. Journal of International Business Studies, 27(3), 517-551.
  51. Leonidou, L.C., Katsikeas, C.S. (1997). Export information sources: the role of organizational and internationalization influences. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 3(2), 1-23.
  52. Lu, J.W., Beamish, P.W. (2001). The internationalization and performance of SMEs. Strategic Management Journal, 22 (6/7), 565-586.
  53. Lumpkin, G.T., Dess, G.G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. The Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135-172.
  54. Madsen, T.K, Rasmussen, E.S., Serváis, P. (2000). Differences and Similarities Between Born Globals and Other Types of Exporters. In: A. Yaprak and H. Tuted (Eds.) Globalization, the Multinational Firm, and Emerging Economies (Advances in International Marketing, 20), (pp. 247-265). Amsterdam: JAI Press/Elsevier.
  55. Madsen, T.K. (2013). Early and rapidly internationalizing ventures: similarities and differences between classifications based on the original international new venture and born global literatures. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11[1), 65 - 79.
  56. Madsen, T.K., Serváis, P. (1997). The internationalization of Born Globals: an evolutionary process. International Business Review, 6(2), 561-583.
  57. Martin, X, Swaminathan, A., Mitchell, W. (1998). Organizational evolution in the interorganizational environment: incentives and constraints on international expansion strategy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43 (3), 566-601.
  58. McAuley, A. (1999). Entrepreneurial instant exporters in the Scottish Arts and Crafts Sector. Journal of International Marketing, 7(4), 67-82.
  59. McDougal, P. (1989). International versus domestic entrepreneurship: new venture strategic behavior and industry structure. Journal of Business Venturing, 4, 387-399.
  60. McDougall, P., Oviat, B.M., Shrader, R.C. (2003). A comparison of international and domestic new ventures. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 59-82.
  61. McDougall, P., Shane, S., Oviat, B.M. (1994). Explaining the formation of international new ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(6), 469-487.
  62. Moen, O. (2002). The Born Globals: a new generation of small European exporters. International Marketing Review, 19(2), 156-175.
  63. Moen, O., Serváis, P. (2002). Born Global or Gradual Global? Examining the export behavior of small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of International Marketing, 10 (3), 49-72.
  64. Moini A.H. (1995). An inquiry into successful exporting: an empirical investigation using a three-stage models. Journal of Small Business Management, 33(3), 9-25.
  65. Ohlin, B. (1933). Interregional and International Trade. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  66. Oviat B.M., McDougall, P. (1997). Challenges for internationalization process theory: the case of international new ventures. Management International Review, 37(2), 85-99.
  67. Oviat B.M., McDougall, P. (2005). Defining International entrepreneurship and modeling the speed of internationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 537-553.
  68. Oviat M.B., McDougall, P. (1995). Global Start-ups: entrepreneurs on a worldwide stage. Academy of Management Executive, 9(2), 30-43.
  69. Oviatt, B.M., McDougall, P. (1994), Toward a Theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1), 45-64.
  70. Reid, S. (1981). The decision-maker and export entry and expansion. Journal of International Business Studies, 12(2), 101-112.
  71. Rennie, M.W. (1993). Global Competitiveness: Born Global. The McKinsey Quarterly, 4(4), 45-52.
  72. Rialp, A, Rialp, J., Urabano, D. Vaillant, Y. (2005). The born-global phenomenon: a comparative case study research. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 3(2), 133-171.
  73. Ricardo, D. (1817). On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. London: John Murray.
  74. Sharma, D., Johanson, J. (1987). Technical consultancy in internationalisation. International Marketing Review, 4 (4), 20-29.
  75. Sharma, D. D., Blomstermo, A. (2003). The internationalization process of Born Globals: A network view. International Business Review, 12(6), 739- 753.
  76. Shaw, G., Williams, A.M. (2004). Tourism and tourism spaces. London: Sage.
  77. Smith, A. (1776). An inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Methuen and Co.
  78. Strauss, A., Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park. CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  79. Vernon, R. (1966). International investment and international trade in the product cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 80(2), 190-207.
  80. Walsham, G. (1995). Interpretive case studies in is research: nature and method. European Journal of Information Systems, 4(2), 74-81.
  81. Weerawardena, J., Mort, G.J., Liesch, P.W., Knight, G. (2007). Conceptualizing accelerated internationalization in the born global firm: a dynamic capabilities perspective. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 294-306.
  82. Welch, D. E., Welch, L. S. (1996). The Internationalisation process and networks: a strategic management process. Journal of International Marketing, 4(3), 11-26.
  83. Williams, A.M., Shaw, G. (2011). Internationalization and innovation in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(1), 27-51.
  84. Williamson, O. E. (1973). Markets and hierarchies: Analysis and anti-trust implications. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 63(2), 316-325.
  85. Yin, R. (1994). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing.
  86. Zahra, S.A. (2005). A theory of international new ventures: a decade of research. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1), 20-28.
  87. Zahra,S.A.,George,G. (2002). Absorptivecapacity:a review, reconceptualization and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 185-203.
  88. Zahra, S.A., Hayton, J., Marcel, J., O'Neill, H. (2001). Fostering entrepreneurship during international expansion: managing key challenges. European Management Journal, 19(A), 359-69.
  89. Zahra, S.A., Kuratko, D., Jennings, D. (1999). Entrepreneurship and the acquisition of dynamic organizational capabilities. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 23(3), 5-10.
Cytowane przez
Pokaż
ISSN
2299-7075
Język
eng
Udostępnij na Facebooku Udostępnij na Twitterze Udostępnij na Google+ Udostępnij na Pinterest Udostępnij na LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu