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Korczak Andrzej
Methodological Innovations in Religious Studies of Mircea Eliade
Prosopon. Europejskie Studia Społeczno-Humanistyczne, 2011, nr 2, s. 75-96
Prosopon. European Humanities and Social Studies
Słowa kluczowe
Filozofia, Poglądy filozoficzne, Religia
Philosophy, Philosophical thought, Religion
Eliade Mircea
Methodology applied by Eliad to his religious studies is a subject of ongoing controversy. Thus, is seems prudent to take a closer look as to what exactly makes it so controversial. He rarely commented on the subject. Rather, one can find his views embedded in his various works, often intertwined with critical remarks directed at other researchers, calling their work unfinished and fallacious. Eliade wrote only one piece fully devoted to his methodology - as applied to religious studies. The Quest. History and the Meaning in Religion. One can read about - sometimes explicitly stated by the author and sometimes less so - the specifics regarding the methodology. A lot of remarks about the methodology can be found in Mephistopheles et L'androgyne. As well as in the first chapter of Traite d'histoire des Religions. Eliade mentioned many interesting remarks during his conversations with Claude-Henri Rocquet. In his other works the purely methodological remarks are very rare. Usually one deals not with methodology per se, but with the theory of religion and the theory of culture, which is connected to the method of analyzing various cultural and religious phenomena. This method of interpretation, however, ceases to be a research tool strictly utilized by those who study religions. Every serious researcher makes sure the method used is adequate to the aim. The purpose of Eliad's work is the depiction of a human being whose life revolves around spiritual visions - the human being known as homo religiosus. The above signifies the juxtaposition between what - in a particular culture - can be construed as profane (profanum) versus the sacred (sacrum). The Romanian scholar wants to discover the truth regarding the specific nature of human condition - that is why he is reconstructing the spiritual history of humanity. The history of what's holy, i.e. the hierophany in human history, is supposed to expand our knowledge when it comes to the nature of the spirit, thereby deepening our understanding of human condition. This knowledge is not supposed to be merely descriptive. The comparison of all behaviors and religious manifestations is supposed to reveal their archetypal nature. Knowledge which stems from these comparisons ought to enrich the modern culture by presenting to a modern man his own, often forgotten, spiritual abilities as well as needs. (fragment of text)
Pełny tekst
  1. Eliade, Mephistopheles et L'androgyne, Paris 1981. Polish edition Mefistofeles i androgyn, by Bogdan Kupis, Warsaw 1994.
  2. M. Eliade, Traitè d'histoire des Religions, Paris 1949, polish edition Traktat o historii religii by Jan Wierusz-Kowalski, Łódź 1993, s. 30, 86-107.
  3. M. Eliade, L'epreuve du Labyrinthe. Entretiens avec Claude-Henri Rocquet, Belfond, 1978,1985. Polish edition Próba labiryntu by Krzysztof Środa, Warsaw 1992.
  4. M. Eliade, A History of Religious Ideas t. 1, Chicago 1978, polish edition Historia wierzeń i ideii religijnych, by Stanisław Tokarski, Warsaw 1988, p. VII.
  5. G. Lanczkowski, Einführung in die Reeligionswissenschaft, Darmstadt 1980, polish edition Wprowadzenie do Religioznawstwa by Andrzej Bronk, Warsaw 1986, p. 160.
  6. J. Borgosz, New anthropology of Eliade's Mircei, published by Humanitas, t. III 1980, p. 23-47.
  7. G. Widengren, Religionsphänomenologie, Berlin 1969, polish edition Fenomenologia religii by Joanna Białek, Kraków 2008
  8. S.A. Tokariew, The primeval forms of religios beliefs and their development, Moscow 1959, polish edition Pierwotne formy wierzeń Religijnych i ich występowanie by Mirosław Nowaczyk, Warsaw 1969.
  9. S. Tokarski, Eliade and the Orient, Wrocław 1984, p. 35.
  10. Z. Pawlak, The Philosophical Interpretation of Eliade's Religious Concepts, Włocławek 1995, p. 29.
  11. M. Eliade Doctor Honingberger's Secret, Polish edition Tajemnica doktora Honigbergerbera by Ireneusz Kania. Kraków, p. 17.
  12. M. Eliade, Majtreji, polish edition by Irena Harasimowicz, Warsaw, p. 18.
  13. G. Leeuw, Van der, Phänomenologie derReligion, Tübingen 1956, polish edition Fenomenologia Religii by Jerzy Prokopiuk, Warsaw 1997, p. 587.
  14. T. Margul, Sto lat nauki o religiach świata, Warsaw 1964, 329-338.
  15. A. Bronk,The Basics of Science and Religion, Lublin 2009, p. 294.
  16. D. Allen, Structure and Creativity in Religion. Hermeneutics in Mircea Eliade's Phenomenology and New Directions. Foreword by Mircea Eliade, Paris- New York, 1978 ch. V.
  17. M. Eliade, The Myth of Eternal Return, New York 1955 polish edition Mit wiecznego powrotu by Krzysztof Kocjan, Warsaw 1998, p. 43-44.
  18. A. Rega, The Man in the World of Symbols, Kraków 2001
  19. B.S. Rennie, Reconstructing Eliade: Making Sense of Religion, New York 1996, p. 27, 88.
  20. Religie a Religia. Systematyczne wprowadzenie do Religioznawstwa by Andrzej Bonk, Warsaw 1991, p. 155-156.
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