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Autor
Heidrich Dorota
Tytuł
Zasada odpowiedzialności za ochronę i możliwość jej praktycznego zastosowania. Casus Libii
Responsibility to Protect Principle and Prospects for its Practical Application. The Case of Libya
Źródło
Stosunki Międzynarodowe, 2013, t. 47, nr 1, s. 167-190, bibliogr. 67 poz.
International Relations
Słowa kluczowe
Odpowiedzialność za ochronę, Interwencja humanitarna, Prawo międzynarodowe, Prawa człowieka, Ochrona praw człowieka, Konflikty zbrojne, Odpowiedzialność
Responsibility to protect (R2P), Humanitarian intervention, International law, Human rights, Human rights protection, Armed conflicts, Responsibility
Uwagi
summ.
Kraj/Region
Libia
Libya
Abstrakt
Zasada "odpowiedzialności za ochronę" (ang. Responsibility to Protect, R2P lub RtoP) ma, patrząc z punktu widzenia rozwoju prawa międzynarodowego i stosunków międzynarodowych, dość krótką historię. Jej powstanie wiąże się z pragnieniem znalezienia odpowiedzi na pytanie: jeśli interwencja humanitarna jest postrzegana jako bezprawny zamach na suwerenność państwową, to jak wspólnota międzynarodowa powinna reagować na masowe naruszenia praw człowieka czy zbrodnie, które uderzają w podstawowe wartości moralne całej ludzkości, tak jak to miało miejsce w Rwandzie czy Srebrenicy? Potrzeba rozwiązania tego dylematu okazała się dodatkowo paląca po interwencji wojsk Sojuszu Północnoatlantyckiego w Kosowie w 1999 r. Ta akcja zbrojna, nawet jeśli przez niektórych uważana była za uzasadnioną (ang. legitimate), uznana została, ze względu na brak zgodności zasad jej przeprowadzenia z Kartą Narodów Zjednoczonych, za nielegalną (ang. illegal). Niezależna Międzynarodowa Komisja ds. Kosowa w swoim raporcie opublikowanym w 2000 r. stwierdziła, że doświadczenia płynące z interwencji NATO w Kosowie wskazują na potrzebę zniwelowania rozbieżności pomiędzy problemem legalności takich działań a ich zasadnością. (fragment tekstu)

The Responsibility to Protect (R2P or RtoP) principle is today lively discussed in forums of numerous international organizations; the UN General Assembly devotes a lot of space to it. According to some researchers, its history proves that a new norm of international law has been formed. The R2P was established also as an attempt to answer the question about possibilities of the international community to counteract the mass violations of the human rights, international crimes and its capability to respond to such events. Moreover, the R2P means the change of understanding of the state sovereignty principle and deriving from it responsibility primarily of the states for their citizens. The article is an attempt to present the R2P characteristics and its content. The analysis made refers to the process of creating the principle, as well the possibility of its practical application. The response of the UN General Assembly to the events in Libya in 2011 happens to be presented as well as a model example of the R2P use. However, the course of the intervention showed that the UN members are far from reaching a consensus as to the scheme of operations in similar situations; the disputes about possible actions concerning the lasting armed confl ict in Syria may serve as a clear example here. (original abstract)
Dostępne w
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Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu
Bibliografia
Pokaż
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Cytowane przez
Pokaż
ISSN
0209-0961
Język
pol
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