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Autor
Prusak Anna (Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie), Rowe Gene (Gene Rowe Evaluations, Wielka Brytania;), Strojny Jacek (Politechnika Rzeszowska im. Ignacego Łukasiewicza)
Tytuł
Is GMO "Sustainable"? A Review of the Environmental Risks of GM Plants in Comparison with Conventional and Organic Crops
Czy GMO jest "zrównoważone"? Przegląd efektów oddziaływania na środowisko roślin GMO w porównaniu z efektami upraw konwencjonalnych oraz ekologicznych
Źródło
Modern Management Review, 2014, vol. 19 (XIX), nr 21 (4), s. 187-200, tab., bibliogr. 92 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Genetyczna Modyfikacja Organizmów (GMO), Rośliny modyfikowane genetycznie, Żywność modyfikowana genetycznie, Rolnictwo ekologiczne, Produkty ekologiczne, Degradacja środowiska, Ochrona środowiska
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), Genetically modified plants, Genetically modified food, Ecological agriculture, Ecological product, Degradation of the environment, Environmental protection
Uwagi
streszcz., summ.
Abstrakt
Prezentowany artykuł ma na celu dokonanie przeglądu potencjalnego i istniejącego ryzyka dla środowiska naturalnego, związanego ze stosowaniem upraw genetycznie zmodyfikowanych (GMO). Przeglądem objęto ponad 30 artykułów zamieszczonych w bazie Science Direct dotyczących wpływu upraw transgenicznych na środowisko. Na tej podstawie zidentyfikowano pięć głównych efektów wpływu rolnictwa na środowisko: 1) zanieczyszczenie spowodowane stosowaniem nawozów sztucznych i środków ochrony roślin, 2) możliwość eksploatacji gruntów marginalnych i ochrona naturalnych siedlisk przyrodniczych, 3) transfer genów, inwazyjność oraz powstanie tzw. "superchwastów", 4) wpływ na inne gatunki, w tym zapylacze, szczególnie istotne dla ekosystemów, 5) bioróżnorodność roślin i zwierząt. Mimo że efekty te kojarzone są zazwyczaj z rolnictwem GMO, autorzy artykułu rozszerzyli tę dyskusję również na rolnictwo konwencjonalne oraz ekologiczne. Analiza porównawcza tych trzech rodzajów upraw wykazała, że oprócz czynnika 3) transfer genów i powstanie "superchwastów" (który to efekt jest specyficzny dla GMO), każdy z wymienionych czynników może mieć zarówno pozytywny, jak i negatywny wpływ na środowisko naturalne. Na przykład rolnictwo konwencjonalne wymaga stosowania dużej ilości środków ochrony roślin, w przeciwieństwie do upraw ekologicznych, podczas gdy uprawy transgeniczne zmniejszają potrzebę użycia pestycydów przy zachowaniu odpowiedniego plonu. Co więcej, niektóre ryzyko utożsamiane z GMO może wynikać także z upraw konwencjonalnych (np. zmniejszenie bioróżnorodności, które szacowane jest na podobnym poziomie jak w wypadku upraw GMO). (abstrakt oryginalny)

The present paper aims to review and discuss potential and existing risks of GM crops to the environment, in comparison with organic and conventional agriculture. The review of over 30 relevant papers on the environmental effects of modern agriculture allowed us to define five main sources of risks, namely: 1) Pollution by synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, 2) Exploitation of marginal lands and protection of natural habitats, 3) Gene flow, invasiveness and "superweeds", 4) Impact on non-target species, particularly pollinators, 5) Biodiversity of crops and wildlife. Although these effects are typically considered with respect to GM crops, the paper compares them with conventional and organic systems. The review shows that each factor, except for the "Gene flow, invasiveness and superweeds" (which is a risk specific to GM crops), may have positive and negative effect dependent on the breeding method. For example, conventional crops require the use of a large amount of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, unlike organic crops, while GM agriculture reduces the use of pesticides. Moreover, some risks typically associated with transgenic crops, i.e. decrease of genetic biodiversity, may also arise from conventional agriculture. The paper concludes that there is no perfect agricultural option and trade-offs are needed to satisfy the need for sustainability.(original abstract)
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Bibliografia
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Cytowane przez
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ISSN
2353-0758
Język
eng
URI / DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.7862/rz.2014.mmr.55
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