BazEkon - Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie

BazEkon home page

Meny główne

Autor
Ferreira Verno (University of the Free State, South Africa), Visser Gustav (University of Stellenbosch, South Africa)
Tytuł
A Spatial Analysis of Gating in Bloemfontein, South Africa
Źródło
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, 2015, No. 28, s. 37-51, wykr., bibliogr. 49 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Analiza przestrzenna, Planowanie przestrzenne, Polityka przestrzenna
Spatial analysis, Spatial planning, Spatial policy
Uwagi
summ.
Kraj/Region
Afryka Południowa
South Africa
Abstrakt
Growing trends of fear and insecurity in cities have sparked the re-visitation of gating, posing significant problems for citizens and policy makers alike. Gated developments are a global phenomenon occurring in diverse countries in both the developed North and developing South. Metropolitan areas in South Africa have also witnessed a rapid increase in the number and spread of gated developments since the late 1980s. Development of enclosed neighbourhoods has become increasingly popular, gaining widespread support for their utopic lifestyle and safety features. On the whole, high levels of crime and fear of crime have led to the construction of defensible space, in the form of gated developments, resulting in elevated levels of segregation. This paper provides a spatial analysis on gated developments in the non-metropolitan setting of Bloemfontein. The pattern and timeframe of gating in this city is shown to be similar to those found elsewhere in South Africa and, indeed, globally. Overall, it is the contention that gating is a trend not only seen in large metropolitan areas, but across the entire urban hierarchy of South Africa, and, as a consequence, requires investigation far beyond its metropolitan regions to more fully understand gated developments. (original abstract)
Pełny tekst
Pokaż
Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Addington, L. and Rennison, C., 2013: Keeping the Barbarians Outside the Gate? Comparing Burglary Victimization in Gated and Non-Gated Communities. In: Justice Quarterly, Vol. 10 (1), pp. 1-25.
  2. Atkinson, R. and Blandy, S., 2005: Introduction: International Perspectives on The New Enclavism and the Rise of Gated Communities. In: Housing Studies, Vol. 20 (2), pp. 177-286. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1080/0267303042000331718
  3. Bagaeen, S., 2003: Understanding Deterioration in the Build Environment: The Palestinian Quarters of the Old City of Jerusalem since 1967 as a Case Study (PhD thesis), London: University of London.
  4. Bagaeen, S., 2010: Gated urban Life versus Kinship and Social Solidarity in the Middle East. In: Bagaeen, S. and Uduku, O. editors, Gated Communities: Social Sustainability in Contemporary and Historical Gated Developments. Abingdon: Earthscan, pp. 15-26.
  5. Bagaeen, S. and Uduku, O., 2010: Gated Communities: Social Sustainability and Historical Gated Developments, New York: Earthscan.
  6. Blakely, E., 2007: Frayed Community: The Gated Community Movement. In: Cnaam, R.A. and Milofsky, C. editors, Handbook of Community Movements and Local Organizations. New York: Springer, pp. 257-266.
  7. Blandy, S., 2006: Gated Communities in England: Historical Perspectives and Current Developments. In: GeoJournal, Vol. 66 (1), pp. 15-26. DOI: http://dx. doi.org/10.1007/s10708-006-9013-4
  8. Bosman, C., 2011: Gated communities: Social Sustainability in Contemporary and Historical Gated Developments. In: Australian Planner, Vol. 48 (1), pp. 58-59. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07293682 .2010.504613
  9. Bramley, G., Dempsey, N., Power, S. and Brown, C., 2006: What is "social sustainability", and how do our existing urban forms perform in nurturing it? In: Planning and Research Conference. London: University College London, 5-7 April, 2006.
  10. Breetzke, G., Landman, K. and Cohn, E., 2014: Is it Safer Behind the Gates? Crime and Gated Communities in South Africa. In: Journal of Housing and Environment, Vol. 29 (1), pp. 123-139. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1007/s10901-013-9362-5
  11. Bramley, G. and Power, S., 2009: Urban Form and Social Sustainability: The Role of Density and Housing Type. In: Environment and Planning, Vol. 36 (1), pp. 30-48.
  12. Brunn, S., 2006: Gated Minds and Gated Lives as Worlds of Exclusion and Fear. In: GeoJournal, Vol. 66 (1), pp. 5-13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10708-006- 9012-5
  13. Buront, E., Jenks, M. and Williams, K., 1996: The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form? London: E. and F.N. Spon.
  14. Burton, E., 2003: Housing of an urban renaissance: Implications for social equity. In: Housing Studies, Vol. 18 (4), pp. 537-562. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1080/02673030304249
  15. Butler, A., 2004: Contemporary South Africa, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  16. Caldeira, T., 2000: City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in Sao Paulo, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  17. Cséfalvay, Z. and Webster, C., 2010: Gates or No Gates? A Cross-European Enquiry into the Driving Forces behind Gated Communities. In: Regional Studies, Vol. 46 (3), pp. 293-308. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0 0343404.2010.505917
  18. Dear, M. and Flusty, S., 1998: Postmodern Urbanism. In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 88 (1), pp. 50-72. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1111/1467-8306.00084
  19. Elkin, T., McLaren, D. and Hillman, M., 1991: Reviving the City: Towards Sustainable Urban Development, London: Friends of the Earth.
  20. Glasze, G., 2006: Segregation and seclusion: The case of compound for western expatriates in Saudi Arabia. In: GeoJournal, Vol. 66, pp. 83-88. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1007/s10708-006-9018-z
  21. Goldhaber, R. and Donaldson, R., 2012: Alternative Reflections on the Elderly's Sense of Place in a South African Gated Retirement Village. In: South African Review of Sociology, Vol. 43 (3), pp. 65-80. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21528586.2012.727548
  22. Grant, J.L., 2007: Two sides of a coin? New urbanism and gated communities. In: Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 18 (3), pp. 481-501. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1 080/10511482.2007.9521608
  23. Hoogendoorn, G. and Visser, G., 2007: The Evolving South African Neighbourhood: The Case of Westdene, Bloemfontein. In: Urban Forum, Vol.,18, pp. 329-349. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12132-007- 9017-2
  24. Kinnaman, T. and Tekeuchi, K., 2014: Handbook on Waste Management, Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
  25. Krige, S., 1991: Bloemfontein. In: Lemon, A. editor, Homes apart: South Africa's segregated cities. London: Paul Chapman, pp. 104-119.
  26. Lemon, A. editor, 1991: Homes Apart: South Africa's Segregated Cities, London: Chapman.
  27. Landman, K., 2002: Gated communities in South Africa: building bridges or barriers? In: International Conference on Private Urban Governance. Mainz, Germany: 6-9 June 2002.
  28. Landman, K., 2003: National Survey on Gated Communities in South Africa, Pretoria: CSIR Council for Scientific Information Research.
  29. Landman, K., 2004: Gated communities in South Africa: Comparison of four case studies in Gauteng, Pretoria: CSIR Council for Scientific Information Research.
  30. Landman, K., 2010: Gated Minds, Gated Places: The Impact and Meaning of Hard Boundaries in South Africa. In: Bagaeen, S. and Uduku, O. editors, Gated Communities: Social Sustainability and Historical Gated Developments. New York: Earthscan, pp. 49-61.
  31. Landman, K. and Schönteich, M., 2002: Urban Fortresses: Gated Communities as a Reaction to Crime. In: African Security Review, Vol. 11 (4), pp. 71-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10246029.2002.9628147
  32. Lemanski, C., 2004: A New Apartheid? The Spatial Implications of Fear of Crime in Cape Town, South Africa. In: Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 16 (1), pp. 101-111.
  33. Manzi, T. and Smith-Bowers, B., 2006: Gated Communities as Club Goods: Segregation or Social Cohesion? In: Atkinson, R. and Blandy, S. editors, Gated Communities. London: Routledge.
  34. McKenzie, E., 1994: Privatopia: Homeowner Associations and the Rise of Residential Private Government, New Haven, CT: Yale University.
  35. Nijman, J., 2000: The Paradigmatic City. In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 90 (1), pp. 135-145. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004- 5608.00189
  36. Paasche, T., 2012: Creating parallel public spaces through private governments: a South African case study. In: South African Geographical Journal, Vol. 94 (1), pp. 46-59. DOI: http://10.1080/03736245.2012.668761.
  37. Ramoroko, T and Tsheola, J., 2014: Gated-communities and the privatization of public spaces in urban South Africa: democratic social integration or exclusion? In: Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, Vol. 7 (4), pp. 58-68. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ JGRP2013.0396
  38. Rex, R. and Visser, G., 2009: Residential Desegregation Dynamics in the South African City of Bloemfontein. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 20 (3), pp. 335-361. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12132-009-9066-9
  39. Spocter, M., 2004: The 'Silent' Closure of Urban Public Space in Cape Town: 1975 to 2004. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 18 (3), pp. 153-170. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1007/s12132-007-9009-2
  40. Spocter, M., 2013: Rural gated developments as a contributor to post-productivism in the Western Cape. In: South African Geographical Journal, Vol. 95 (2), pp. 165-186. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/037362 45.2013.847801
  41. Swilling, M., Humphries, R. and Shubane, K., 1991: Apartheid City in Transition, London: Oxford University Press.
  42. Thornton, R., 2000: Postcolonial Identities in Africa. In: Werbner, R. and Ranger, T. editors, The Potentials of Boundaries in South Africa: Steps Towards a Theory of the Social Edge. London: Zed, pp. 136-161.
  43. Van de Wetering, A., 2002: Enclosed Neighbourhoods in Perspective, Pretoria: University of Pretoria, B.Sc. Thesis.
  44. Vesselinov, E., Cazessus, M. and Falk, W., 2007: Gated Communities and Spatial Inequality. In: Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 29 (2), pp. 109-127.
  45. Visser, G. 2013: Looking Beyond the Urban Poor: The New Terra Incognita for Urban Geography. In: Canadian Journal of African Studies, Vol. 47, pp. 75-93. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00083968.2013.770593
  46. Visser, G. and Rogerson, C.M., 2014: Reflections on 25 Years of Urban Forum. In: Urban Forum, Vol. 25(1), pp. 1-11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12132-014- 9227-3
  47. Weinberg, A., Pellow, D. and Allan, S., 2000: Urban Recycling and the Search for Sustainable Community Development, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  48. Welgemoed, L., 2009: The Social and Spatial Manifestation of Gated Developments in the North-eastern Suburbs of Cape Town, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.
  49. Wu, F. and Webber, K., 2004: The Rise of Foreign Gated Communities in Beijing: Between Economic Globalization and Local Institutions. In: Cities, Vol. 21 (3), pp. 203-213. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities. 2004.03.002
Cytowane przez
Pokaż
ISSN
1732-4254
Język
eng
Udostępnij na Facebooku Udostępnij na Twitterze Udostępnij na Google+ Udostępnij na Pinterest Udostępnij na LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu