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Gasparski Wojciech (Business Ethics Centre; Kozminski University in Warsaw, Poland)
Human Action as an Ultimate Given : Ludwig Von Mises' Praxeology as Seen from a Business Ethics Angle
Studia Humana, 2013, vol. 2(1), s. 3-14, bibliogr. 25 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Poglądy filozoficzne, Prakseologia, Filozofia ekonomii
Philosophical thought, Praxeology, Philosophy of economics
Mises Ludwig von
Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) was one of the two parallel followers of the Espinas', a French scholar, human action theory; the other was Tadeusz Kotarbiński (1886-1981). The former was the founder of the Austrian praxeology considered as the aprioristic logic of action, and the latter originated the Polish praxiology considered as general methodology, i.e. epistemology of practice or grammar of action. This paper is intended to characterize the Mises' approach, closely related to his experience; therefore a number of important facts from the life of the Austrian praxeologist, economist and economics philosopher is summarized in the first part of the essay. According to Mises praxeological laws apply to the regularity of phenomena due to the correlations between means and ends which restricts people's freedom of choice and action. Other restrictions of action have their source in physical laws, to which humans must adjust their behavior if they want to live, and physiological laws, i.e. a set of constitutive qualities characteristic of each individual, defining that individual's disposition and susceptibility to environmental. Mises presented his theory in the book Human Action: A Treatise on Economics, over nine hundred pages long opus magnum that comprises forty chapters. The present essay is concentrated on praxeology and its relation to economics with special emphasis on the ethical dimension presented in contemporary literature. For praxeology is a part of practical philosophy, or ethics in the broad sense, it is therefore proper to discuss the issue in the ethical context, especially the business ethics angle is relevant for the Misesian praxeology, and 'its hitherto best-developed branch - economics'. Economic knowledge, based on praxeology - says Mises - being an essential element in the structure of human civilization; is 'the foundation upon which modern industrialism and all the moral, intellectual, technological, and therapeutical achievements of the last centuries have been built.(original abstract)
Pełny tekst
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  3. Aranzadi, J., 2006, Liberalism against Liberalism: Theoretical analysis of the works of Ludvig von Mises and Gary Backer, Routledge, London and New York.
  4. Auspitz, J. L., Gasparski, W. W., Mlicki, M. and Szaniawski, K., eds., 1992, Praxiologies and the Philosophy of Economics, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (USA)-London (UK).
  5. Bookstaber, R. M., 2007, A Demon of Our Own Design: Markets, Hedge Funds and the Perils of Financial Innovation, Wiley, Hoboken NJ.
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  8. Dow S. C., 2002, Economic Methodology: An Inquiry, Oxford,: Oxford Univ. Press
  9. Espinas, A. V., 1897 Les origines de la technologie, Paris.
  10. Gasparski, W. W., 1993, A Philosophy of Practicality: A Treatise on the Philosophy of Tadeusz Kotarbiński, Societas Philosophica Fennica, Helsinki.
  11. Gasparski, W. W., 1996, Działalność gospodarcza z punktu widzenia filozofii: Między prakseologią a etyką, Prakseologia 1-4, 1996, ss. 9-28.
  12. Gasparski W. W., 2010, Entrepreneurship from a Praxiology Point of View, in: Gasparski, W. W., Ryan, L. V., Kwiatkowski, S., eds., Entrepreneurship: Values and Responsibility, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick (USA)-London (UK), pp. 23-36.
  13. Greaves, P. L., Jr., 1974, Mises Made Easier: A Glossary for Ludwig von Mises' Human Action, Free Market Books, Dobbs Ferry, New York.
  14. Hoppe, H. H., 1993, The Economics and Ethics of Private Property, Kluwer, Boston MA.
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  16. Kirzner, I. M, 2001, Ludwig von Mises: The Man and His Economics, ISI Books, Wilmington, Delaware.
  17. Kotarbiński, T., 1949, Ce qu'il y a d'essentiel dans l'appreciation morale, in: Library of the Tenth International Congress of Philosophy, Vol. 1.Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Philosophy, (Amsterdam, August 11-18,1948), Fascicule, Amsterdam, pp 475478.
  18. Kotarbiński, T., 1983 "The Goal of an Act and the Task of the Agent', in: Gasparski, W. W. and Pszczołowski, T., eds. Praxiological Studies: Polish Contributions to the Science of Efficient Action, PWN - Reidel, Warsaw - Dordrecht; original 1910, first published 1913.
  19. Mises, L. von, 1966, Human Action: A Treatise on Economics, Third revised edition, Contemporary Books Inc., Chicago.
  20. Mises, L. von, 1970, Planned Chaos, The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc., Irvington-on-Hudson, New York.
  21. Mises, L. von, 2002, The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science: An Essay on Method, The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc., Irvington-on-Hudson, New York.
  22. Mises, L. von, 2007, Ludzkie działanie: Traktat o ekonomii, transl. by Witold Falkowski, Instytut L. von Misesa, Warsaw.
  23. Mises, M. von, 1984, My Years with Ludwig von Mises, 2nd enlarged edition, Center for Futures Education, Inc., Cedar Falls, Iowa.
  24. Rothbard, M. N., 1998, The Ethics of Liberty, 2nd ed., New York University Press, New York.
  25. Sandel, M. J., 2012, What Money Can't Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, New York.
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