BazEkon - Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie

BazEkon home page

Meny główne

Autor
Tiwari Prakash C. (Kumaon University, India), Joshi Bhagwati (Kumaon University, India)
Tytuł
Environmental Changes, Rural Out-Migration and Social Dynamics in Himalayas
Źródło
Studia Obszarów Wiejskich, 2015, t. 38, s. 77-96, bibliogr. 51 poz.
Rural Studies
Tytuł własny numeru
Local Development in Urban and Rural space : Project and Planning
Słowa kluczowe
Warunki życia ludności, Migracja ludności, Przyczyny migracji, Obszary wiejskie
People's living conditions, Population migration, Reasons for migration, Rural areas
Uwagi
summ., streszcz.
Kraj/Region
Himalaje, Indie
Himalayas, India
Abstrakt
Environmental Changes, Rural Out-Migration and Social Dynamics in Himalayas The paper aims at interpreting inter-linkages between environmental changes and rural out-migration and at assessing their impacts on quality of life of rural women with a case illustration of Upper Kosi Catchment, Uttarakhand Himalayas, India. The results indicate that the availability of water, fuel-wood and fodder decreased, agricultural production declined and livelihood opportunities were reduced mainly due to depletion of natural resources. Consequently, the male out-migration increased by 15% during 1981-2011. This increased workload of women by 25%, more than 40% women are under severe threat of a variety of health risks generated mainly due to excess work-load, under-nourishment and lack of hygiene and sanitation.(original abstract)
Pełny tekst
Pokaż
Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Aase H. A., Chapagain P., Tiwari P. C., 2013, Innovation as an Expression of Adaptive Capacity to Change in Himalayan Farming, Mountain Research and Development, Feb. 2013, 33 (1), pp. 4-10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1659/MRD-Journal-D-12-00025.1.
  2. Ashish M., 1983, Agricultural Economy of Kumaon Hills: A threat to Ecological Disaster, [in:] Singh O. P. (ed.), The Himalayas: Nature, Man and Culture, New Delhi, Rajesh Publications, pp. 233-245.
  3. Batliwala S., 2007, Putting Power back into Empowerment, http://www.whenet.org/docs/perspective- srilatha-0707.html
  4. Beniston M., 2005, Mountain climates and climatic change: An overview of processes focusing on the European Alps, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 162, pp. 1587-1606.
  5. Brody A., Demtriades J., Esplen E., 2008, Gender and Climate Change: Mapping the Linkages - A Scoping Study on Knowledge and Gaps, BRIDGE, University of Sussex, Sussex.
  6. CIDA, 2002, Gender Equality and Climate Change: Why consider gender equality when taking action on climate change? Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Hull.
  7. Daley E., 2011, Gendered Impacts of Commercial Pressures on Land, Mokoro, London.
  8. FAO, 2008, Food Security in Mountains - High time for action, Brochure of the International Mountain
  9. Day 2008, http://www.mountaineering.ie/documentbank/uploads/IMD08%20brochure.pdf
  10. FAO, 2010, Farmers in a changing climate: does gender matter?, Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), Rome, http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1721e/i1721e00.htm
  11. FAO, 2011, The State of Food and Agriculture - Women in Agriculture: Closing the Gender Gap in Development, Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), Rome.
  12. Hassan R., Scholes R., Ash N. (eds.), 2005, Ecosystems and human well-being: Current state and trends, vol. 1, Findings of the condition and trends, Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Washington, Island Press.
  13. Hoermann B., Kollmair M., 2009, Labour migration and remittances in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, ICIMOD Working Paper, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  14. Huddleston B., Ataman E., 2003, Towards a GIS-based analysis of mountain environments and populations, Environment and Natural Resources Working Paper, 10, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  15. ICIMOD, 1999, Searching for Women's Voices in the Hindu Kush Himalayas, ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  16. ICIMOD, 2010, Gender Perspectives in Mountain Development: New challenges and innovative approaches periodical publication on Sustainable Mountain Development, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), 57, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  17. ICIMOD, 2011, Labour Migration and Remittances in Uttarakhand, Case Study Report, ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  18. IOM, 2008, Migration and climate change, IOM Migration and Research Series, 31, International Organisation for Migration, Geneva.
  19. IFAD, 2001, Rural Poverty: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty Report, Oxford University Press.
  20. IPCC, 2007, Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Working Group II contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  21. Jain A., Nagarwalla D. J., 2004, Why conserve forests? A baseline study to assess people's perceptions, attitudes and practices for increasing people's involvement in conservation, Dehradun, Appropriate Technology India.
  22. Joshi B., Tiwari P. C., 2013, Women and Sustainable Mountain Development: An illustration of Indigenous Women's Adaptation to Climate Change in Himalayas, paper presented at Sixteenth Sustainable Development Conference - Creating Momentum: Today is Tomorrow, Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad Pakistan, 10-12 December 2013.
  23. Kollmair M., Manandhar S., Subedi B., Thieme S., 2006, New figures for old stories: Migration and remittance in Nepal, www.migrationletters.com
  24. Lonergan S., 1998, The role of environmental degradation in population displacement, Environmental Change and Security Project Report, 4, pp. 5-15.
  25. Leduc B., Shrestha A., 2008, Gender and Climate Change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: Nepal Case Study, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal.
  26. Mamgain R. P., 2003, Out-migration among rural households in Uttaranchal: Magnitude and characteristics, Labour and Development (special issue on migration), 9 (2), pp. 259-287.
  27. Maithani B. P., 1996, Towards Sustainable Hill Area Development, Himalayas: Man, Nature and Culture, 16 (2), pp. 4-7.
  28. Malhotra A., Schuler S. R., 2005, Women's Empowerment as a Variable in International Development in Measuring Empowerment: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives by Deepa Narayan-Parker, Deepa Narayan, World Bank Publications.
  29. Mehta M., ICIMOD, 2007, Gender and Disasters, Draft Report, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal.
  30. Messerli B., Ives J. D. (eds) 1997, Mountains of the world - A global priority, A contribution to Chapter 13 of Agenda 21, Parthenon, New York.
  31. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis, Island Press, Washington, DC.
  32. Nautiyal A., 2003, Women and Development in the Garhwal Himalayas, AJWS, 9, 4, pp. 93-113.
  33. Nellemann C., Verma R., Hislop L. (eds.), 2011, Women at the frontline of climate change: Gender risks and hopes, A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal.
  34. Pant B. R., 2000, Uttarakhand: A Geographical Introduction, Sharad Nanda, Kumaon Sharadotsav Samiti, Nainital, pp. 9-16.
  35. Rasmussen S. F., Parvez S., 2002, Sustaining Mountain Economies: Sustainable Livelihoods and Poverty Alleviation, Thematic Paper for Bishkek Global Mountain Summit, UNEP (draft).
  36. Rawat J. S., 2009, Saving Himalayan Rivers: developing spring sanctuaries in headwater regions [in:] Shah B. L. (ed.), Natural resource conservation in Uttarakhand, Ankit Prakshan, Haldwani, pp. 41-69.
  37. Sonesson M., Messerli B. (eds.), 2002, The Abisko Agenda: Research for mountain area development, Ambio Special Report, 11, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
  38. Sherpa D., 2007, New Vulnerabilities for Mountain Women: A Different Light on the Greater Himalayas, Final Draft Report, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal.
  39. Singh J. S., Pandey U., Tiwari A. K., 1984, Man and Forests: A Central Himalayan Case Study, Ambio, 13, pp. 80-87.
  40. Stromquist N., 2002, Educating as a means for empowering women, [in:] Parpart J. L. Rai Shirin M., Staudt K. (eds.), Rethinking Empowerment, Routledge, London.
  41. Tiwari P. C., 2000, Land Use Changes in Himalayas and their Impact on the Plains Ecosystem: Need for Sustainable Land Use, Land Use Policy, 17, pp. 101-111.
  42. Tiwari P. C., Joshi B., 2012a, Environmental changes and sustainable development of water resources in the Himalayan headwaters of India, International Journal of Water Resource Management, 26 (4), pp. 883-907, DOI 10.1007/ s11269-011-9825-y.
  43. Tiwari P. C., Joshi B., 2012b, Natural and socio-economic factors affecting food security in the Himalayas, Food Security, 4 (2), pp. 195-207, DOI 10.1007/s12571-012-0178-z.
  44. UN, 2012, Outcome of the Conference, Agenda Item - 10. Rio+20: United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, June 2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  45. UNEP, 2004, The fall of water. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, http://www. grida.no/publications/fall-ofthe-water/
  46. UNEP-WCMC, 2002, Mountain Watch: Environmental change and sustainable development in mountains, UNEP, Nairobi, www.unep-wcmc.org/mountains/mountainwatchreport/ (accessed 11 March 2012)
  47. UNDP, 2010, Power, Voice and Rights: A Turning Point for Gender Equality in Asia and the Pacific, Asia Pacific Human Development Report, Colombo, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Regional Centre for Asia Pacific.
  48. Verma R., 2001, Gender, Land and Livelihoods: Through Farmers Eyes, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa.
  49. Viviroli D., Weingartner R., Messerli B., 2003, Assessing the Hydrological Significance of the World's Mountains, Mountain Research and Development, 23, pp. 32-40.
  50. World Bank, 2009, India receives world's largest remittance flows, Washington DC, World Bank, http://worldbank.org/E6Y6IE0CQ0 (accessed 14 November 2012)
  51. World Resources Institute, 2005, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Ecosystems and Human Well- -being: Synthesis, Island Press, Washington, DC.
Cytowane przez
Pokaż
ISSN
1642-4689
Język
eng
URI / DOI
http://dx.doi.org/0.7163/SOW.38.5
Udostępnij na Facebooku Udostępnij na Twitterze Udostępnij na Google+ Udostępnij na Pinterest Udostępnij na LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu