BazEkon - Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie

BazEkon home page

Meny główne

Autor
Günzel-Jensen Franziska (Aarhus University, Denmark), Holm Anna B. (Aarhus University, Denmark)
Tytuł
Freemium Business Models as the Foundation for Growing an E-Business Venture: a Multiple Case Study of Industry Leaders
Źródło
Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation (JEMI), 2015, vol. 11, nr 1, s. 77-100, tab., bibliogr. s. 95-99
Tytuł własny numeru
Business Model Innovation - a Concept Between Organizational Renewal and Industry Transformation
Słowa kluczowe
Biznes elektroniczny, Technologia informacyjna, Modele biznesowe
e-business, Information Technology (IT), Business models
Uwagi
streszcz., summ.
Abstrakt
W e-biznesie modele biznesowe Freemium stały się legalne. Jednak obecne badania dostarczają znikomej wiedzy na temat sposobu w jaki oferta free i premium powinna być użyta, by w dłuższej perspektywie doprowadziła do wzrostu i sukcesu firmy. Prezentowane badanie ma na celu wypełnienie tej luki poprzez zbadanie, w jaki sposób cecha "free" została zastosowana w modelach biznesowych młodej przedsiębiorczości w początkowej fazie etapów cyklu życia - rozpoznaniu możliwości, wejścia na rynek, i eksploatacji rynku. Uważamy, że różne formy modeli biznesowych Freemium są stosowane w początkowych etapach cyklu życia nowego przedsięwzięcia z powodu prób i błędów, uczenia się, poszukiwania, legitymizacji i pozyskiwania zasobów. Model biznesowy Freemium może również służyć jako powstający model biznesowy, choć bez trwałego komponentu monetyzacji, może być wykorzystany w celu znalezienia trwałego modelu biznesowego poprzez serię dynamicznych zmian. Nasze ustalenia to wkład w literaturę dotyczącą modelu biznesowego na trzy sposoby: po pierwsze, nasze badania empiryczne pokazują wielowymiarowość komponentu "free" w modelach biznesowych Freemium. Darmowi użytkownicy mają znaczenie dla budowania sieci, poszukiwania i eksploatacji oraz rozwoju z upływem czasu. Ponadto, tacy użytkownicy umożliwiają, bezpośrednio i pośrednio, dalsze pozyskiwanie zasobów. Po drugie, podczas gdy dotychczasowa literatura prezentowała perspektywę statyczną, nasz wkład ilustruje dynamiczny proces projektu strategicznego modelu biznesowego na rzecz jego wzrostu. Wreszcie, wprowadzamy pojęcie powstającego modelu biznesowego, który jest nowy w literaturze. (abstrakt oryginalny)

In e-business freemium business models have become legitimate. However, current research provides little insight on how the free and premium offering should be employed to lead to growth and success in the long run. The presented research aims to fill this gap by investigating how the property 'free' was employed in young entrepreneurial ventures' business models in the initial life-cycle stages - opportunity recognition, market entry, and market exploitation. We find that various forms of freemium business models are employed through the initial life-cycle stages of a new venture for reasons of trial-and-error, learning, exploration, legitimization and resource acquisition. A freemium business model can also serve as a nascent business model, though without a sustainable monetization component, for finding a sustainable business model through a series of dynamic adjustments. With our findings we contribute to the business model literature in three ways: First, our empirical findings show the many-sidedness of the component 'free' in freemium business models. Free users are of importance for network building, exploration and exploitation and growth over time. Moreover, free users enable directly and indirectly further resource acquisition. Second, while previous literature has taken a static perspective, we contribute by illustrating the dynamic process of strategic business model design for growth. Finally, we introduce the concept of the nascent business model which is new to the literature. (original abstract)
Pełny tekst
Pokaż
Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Achtenhagen, L., Naldi, L., & Melin, L. (2010). "Business Growth"-Do practitioners and scholars really talk about the same thing? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(2), 289-316.
  2. Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). Value creation in e-business. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6-7), 493-520.
  3. Anderson, C. (2009). Free: The Future of a  Radical Price: Random House.
  4. Andries, P., Van Looy, B., Lecocq, C., & Debackere, K. (2008, May). New ventures in emerging industries: Approaches to business model adaptation. Paper presented at the 16th HTSF High Technology Small Firms Conference, Twente, Netherlands.
  5. Ardichvili, A., Cardozo, R., & Ray, S. (2003). A theory of entrepreneurial opportunity identification and development. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1), 105-123.
  6. Baden-Fuller, C., & Haefliger, S. (2013). Business models and technological innovation. Long Range Planning, 46(6), 419-426.
  7. Baden-Fuller, C., & Mangematin, V. (2013). Business models: A challenging agenda. Strategic Organization, 11(4), 418-427.
  8. Baden-Fuller, C., & Morgan, M. S. (2010). Business models as models. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 156-171.
  9. Bamford, C. E., Dean, T. J., & McDougall, P. P. (2000). An examination of the impact of initial founding conditions and decisions upon the performance of new bank start-ups. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(3), 253- 277.
  10. Baum, J. R., Locke, E. A., & Smith, K. G. (2001). A multidimensional model of venture growth. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 292-303.
  11. Bhide, A. (2000). The Origin and Evolution of New Businesses. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  12. Birke, D., & Swann, G. P. (2006). Network Effects and the Choice of Mobile Phone Operator. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 16(1-2), 65-84.
  13. Bosma, N., Jones, K., Autio, E., & Levie, J. (2007). Executive Report Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Babson College, Babson Park, MA, US, London Business School, London, UK.
  14. Brokaw, L. (1993). The Truth About Start-Ups. Retrieved from http://www.inc. com/magazine/19930301/3440.html.
  15. Casadesus-Masanell, R., & Ricart, E. J. (2010). From strategy to business models and onto tactics. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 195- 195.
  16. Cavalcante, S. A., Kesting, P., & Ulh0i, J. P. (2011). Business model dynamics and innovation: (Re)establishing the missing linkages. Management Decision, 49(8), 1327-1342.
  17. Chesbrough, H., & Rosenbloom, R. S. (2002). The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation's technology spin- off companies. Industrial and corporate change, 11(3), 529-555.
  18. Clements, M. T. (2004). Direct and Indirect Network Effects: Are They Equivalent? International Journal of Industrial Organization, 22(5), 633645.
  19. Conner, K. R. (1995). Obtaining Strategic Advantage from Being Imitated: When Can Encouraging "Clones" Pay? Management Science, 41(2), 209225.
  20. Daft, R. L., & Lewin, A. Y. (1993). Where are the theories for the "new" organizational forms? An Editorial Essay. Organization Science, 4(4), i- vi.
  21. Davidsson, P., Achtenhagen, L., & Naldi, L. (2005). Research on small firm growth: A Review. Queensland University of Technology. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/2012/
  22. de Reuver, M., Bouwman, H., & MacInnes, I. (2009). Business model dynamics: A case survey. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 4(1).
  23. Demil, B., & Lecocq, X. (2010). Business model evolution: In search of dynamic consistency. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 221-246.
  24. Dunbar, R. L. M., & Starbuck, W. H. (2006). Learning to design organizations and learning from designing them. Organization Science, 17(2), 111-118.
  25. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532- 550.
  26. Eisenmann, T., Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2011). Platform envelopment. Strategic Management Journal, 32(12): 1210-1285.
  27. Froberg, P. (2015). What is freemium? Retrieved from www.freemium.org.
  28. George, G., & Bock, A. J. (2011). The business model in practice and its implications for entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 83-111.
  29. Günzel, F., & Holm, A. B. (2013). One size does not fit all - understanding the front-end and back-end of business model innovation. International Journal of Innovation Management, 17(1).
  30. Gans, J. S., & Stern, S. (2003). The product market and the market for "ideas": commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs. Research Policy, 32(2), 333-350.
  31. Google Inc. (2013). Financial tables. Retrieved from http://investor.google. com/financial/2013/tables.html
  32. Hancock, D. R., & Algozzine, B. (2006). Doing case study research: A practical guide for beginning researchers. New York: Teachers College Press.
  33. Holm, A. B., Günzel, F., & Ulh0i, J. P. (2013). Openness in innovation and business models: Lessons from the newspaper industry. International Journal of Technology Management, 61(3/4), 324-348.
  34. Johnson, M. W., Christensen, C. M., & Kagermann, H. (2008). Reinventing your business model. Harvard Business Review, 86(12), 50-59.
  35. Kazanjian, R. K., & Drazin, R. (1990). A stage-contingent model of design and growth for technology based new ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 5(3), 131- 150.
  36. Kesting, P., & Günzel-Jensen, F. (2015). SMEs and new ventures need business model sophistication. Business Horizon, 58(3): 285-293.
  37. Leitch, C., Hill, F., & Neergaard, H. (2010). Entrepreneurial and Business Growth and the Quest for a  "Comprehensive Theory": Tilting at Windmills? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34 (2), 249-260.
  38. Levinthal, D. A., & March, J. G. (1993). The Mytopia of Learning. Strategic Management Journal, 14(S2), 95-112.
  39. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1990). Judging the quality of case study reports. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 3(1), 53-59.
  40. Low, M. B., & MacMillan, I. C. (1988). Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges. Journal of Management, 14(2), 139-161.
  41. Martins, L. L., Rindova, V. P., & Greenbaum, B. E. (2015). Unlocking the hidden value of concepts: a cognitive approach to business model innovation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Joural, 9(1), 99-117.
  42. Massa, L., & Tucci, C. L. (2013). Business model innovation. In M. Dodgson, D. M. Gann & N. Phillips (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management (420-441), Oxford University Press.
  43. McGrath, R. G. (2010). Business models: A discovery driven approach. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 243-261.
  44. McKelvie, A., & Wiklund, J. (2010). Advancing firm growth research: A focus on growth mode instead of growth rate. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(2), 261-288.
  45. Mendelson, H. (2000). Organizational architecture and success in the information technology industry. Management Science, 46(4), 513-529.
  46. Miles, M. B., Huberman, M. A., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis (3rd ed.). Thousands Oaks, CA: SAGE.
  47. Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  48. Piskorski, M. J. (2007). LinkedIn (A). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School.
  49. Pujol, N. (2010). Freemium: attributes of an emerging business model. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1718663.
  50. Reynolds, P., & Miller, B. (1992). New firm gestation: Conception, birth, and implications for research. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(5), 405-417.
  51. Ridder, H.-G., Hoon, C., & McCandless, A. (2009). The theoretical contribution of case study research to the field of strategy and management. Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, 5, 137-175.
  52. Salganik, M. J., Dodds, P. S., & Watts, D. J. (2006). Experimental Study of Inequality and Unpredictability in an Artificial Cultural Market. Science, 311(5762), 854-856.
  53. Sosna, M., Trevinyo-Rodriguez, R. N., & Velamuri, S. R. (2010). Business Model Innovation through Trial-and-Error Learning: The Naturehouse Case. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 383-407.
  54. Strahilevitz, L. J. (2003). Charismatic Code, Social Norms, and the Emergence of Cooperation on the File-Swapping Networks. Virginia Law Review, 89(3), 505- 595.
  55. Sylvester, J., & Rand, W. (2014, February) Keeping Up with the (Pre-Teen) Joneses: The Effect of Friendship on Freemium Conversion. Paper presented at the Winter Conference on Business Intelligence, Snowbird, Utah.
  56. Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: the nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), 1319-1350.
  57. Teece, D. J. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 172- 194.
  58. Vaccaro, V. L., & Cohn, D. Y. (2004). The Evolution of Business Models and Marketing Strategies in the Music Industry. International Journal on Media Management, 6(1-2), 46-58.
  59. Voelpel, S. C., Leibold, M., & Tekie, E. B. (2004). The wheel of business model reinvention: how to reshape your business model to leapfrog competitors. Journal of Change Management, 4(3), 259-276.
  60. Wang, C. C., Hsu, Y., & Fang, W. 2004. Acceptance of Technology with Network Externalities: An Empirical Study of Internet Instant Messaging Services. Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, 6(4),15-28.
  61. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.
  62. Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2007). Business model design and the performance of entrepreneurial firms. Organization Science, 18(2), 181-199.
  63. Zott, C., Amit, R., & Massa, L. (2011). The business model: Recent developments and future research. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1019-1042.
Cytowane przez
Pokaż
ISSN
2299-7075
Język
eng
URI / DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.7341/20151115
Udostępnij na Facebooku Udostępnij na Twitterze Udostępnij na Google+ Udostępnij na Pinterest Udostępnij na LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu