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Kozłowski Artur (Wroclaw University)
The Normative Dimension of the Conception of the Individual Presented in Opinions of Judge Antonio Augusto Cançado Trindade of the ICJ - Fundamental Elements
Wroclaw Review of Law, Administration & Economics, 2015, vol. 5, nr 2, s. 1-17
Słowa kluczowe
Prawo międzynarodowe, Sądownictwo, Prawa człowieka, Międzynarodowe prawo humanitarne
International law, Judicature, Human rights, International humanitarian law
Antonio Augusto Cançado Trindade, retired professor of international law at the University of Brasilia, in 1995-2008 judge and Chief Justice of the International Court of Human Rights, was appointed in 2008 to the International Court of Justice for a 9-year term. Since then, he has authored a large number of separate and dissenting opinions concerning verdicts handed down by the Hague-based tribunal. They present a relatively coherent, yet at times controversial picture of international law, with a very strong accent on the role of the individual as the point of reference in the overarching structure of the international law system. This is a conception which Cançado Trindade has been developing for many years, and the presented approach is a characteristic feature of his views. However, it should be emphasized that the manner in which he captures the issue is not entirely unknown to earlier phases in the development of international law jurisprudence. Worthy of particular attention is the consistent manner in which he has constructed a comprehensive approach to the issue under consideration, as well as his efforts at describing the normative reality as a consequence of a humanistic vision of the international legal order; in this vision, the law, including international public law, is a product of some of humanity's lasting aspirations, consistently leaving its mark on the image of public international law. Cançado Trindade emphasizes that this approach to the essence of international law contributes to limiting abuses that affect individuals, as well as grievous violations of human rights and international humanitarian law. (fragment of text)
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  1. Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, 2008 (Separate opinion).
  2. Pulp Mills case (Argentina v Uruguay), 2010 (Separate opinion).
  3. Advisory Opinion on Judgment No. 2867 of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization upon a Complaint Filed against the International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2010 (Separate opinion).
  4. Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v Russian Federation), 2011 (Dissenting opinion).
  5. Ahmadou Sadio Diallo case (I, II, III) (Republic of Guinea v Democratic Republic of the Congo), 2012 (Separate opinions).
  6. Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v Senegal), 2012 (Separate opinion).
  7. Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v Italy: Greece intervening), 2012 (Dissenting opinion).
  8. Request for Interpretation of the Judgment of 15 June 1962 in the Case concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v Thailand) (Cambodia v Thailand), 2013 (Seperate opinion).
  9. Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso v Niger), 2013 (Seperate opinion).
  10. Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia v Japan: New Zealand intervening), 2014 (Separate opinion).
  11. Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v Chile), 2015 (Separate opinion).
  12. Judge Antônio A. Cançado Trindade. The Construction of a Humanized International Law: A Collection of Individual Opinions (1991-2013) (Preface by Dean Spielmann, General Introduction by Andrew Drzemczewski, Brill Nijhoff, Hotei Publishing 2014).
  13. Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, International Law for Humankind. Towards a New Jus Gentium (2nd revised edn, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2013).
  14. Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, 'The Voluntarist Conception of International Law: A Re-Assessment' (1981) 59 Revue de droit international de sciences diplomatiques et politiques.
  15. Reflections on International Law-Making: Customary International Law and Reconstruction of Jus Gentium' in International Law and Development (Proceedings of the 1986 Conference of the Canadian Council on International Law), Ottawa, Canadian Council on International Law, 1986.
  16. Le nouveau Règlement de la Cour Interaméricaine des Droits de l'Homme: quelques réflexions sur la condition de l'individu comme sujet du Droit international in Libertés, justice, tolérance - Mélanges en homage au Doyen G. Cohen-Jonathan, vol. I (Bruylant 2004).
  17. Complementarity between State Responsibility and Individual Responsibility for Grave Violations of Human Rights: the Crime of State Revisited in Maurizio Ragazzi (ed.), International Responsibility Today -Essays in Memory of Oscar Schachter (Martinus Nijhoff 2005).
  18. A Humanizaçao do Direito Internacional, Belo Horizonte, Edit. Del Rey, 2006.
  19. Robert P. Barnidge, Jr.,''The Contribution of Judge Antȏnio Augusto Cançado Trindade to the Adjudication of International Human Rights at the International Court of Justice' in James A Green, Christopher PM Waters (eds), Adjudicating International Human Rights. Essays in Honour of Sandy Gandhy (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2014) 49.
  20. Separate opinion in the case Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia, New Zealand v Japan) [2014] ICJ Rep 382, para. 90.
  21. Andrzej Maryniarczyk, Powszechna Encyklopedia Filozoficzna, Polskie Towarzystwo Tomasza z Akwinu accessed 07.12.2015.
  22. Separate opinion in the case concerning Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v Senegal) [2012] ICJ Rep 556, para. 177.
  23. Separate opinion in the case Ahmadou Sadio Diallo II (Republic of Guinea v Democratic Republic of the Congo) [2010] ICJ Rep 763, para. 106.
  24. Separate opinion in the case of Ahmadou Sadio Diallo III (Republic of Guinea v Democratic Republic of the Congo) [2012] ICJ Rep 355, para. 21.
  25. Dissenting opinion in the case concerning the Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v Italy: Greece intervening) [2012] ICJ Rep 289, para. 310.
  26. Separate opinion in the Pulp Mills case (Argentina v Uruguay) [2010] ICJ Rep 214, para. 217.
  27. Separate opinion in the case of Interpretation of Judgment in the case of the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v Thailand) [2013] ICJ Rep 345, para. 66.
  28. Separate opinion in the case Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v Chile) (Preliminary Objection) 13, para. 40 with separate opinions (para. 20, paras 25-27).
  29. accessed 07.01.2015.
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