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Sokołowski Wojciech (University of Business and Administration of Eugeniush Kwiatkowski)
Analysis of Electronic Road Toll Systems in Selected EU Countries
Przedsiębiorczość i Zarządzanie, 2016, t. 17, z. 12, cz. 1, s. 379-399, rys., tab., bibliogr. 24 poz.
Entrepreneurship and Management
Tytuł własny numeru
Nowe kierunki w zarządzaniu logistycznym
Słowa kluczowe
Zarządzanie drogami, Technologia komunikowania, Polityka komunikacyjna
Road management, Communication technology, Communication policy
Unia Europejska (UE)
European Union (EU)
The purpose of this article is to analyse electronic tolling solutions that are currently available in selected EU countries. In the first stage it presents the EU legislation concerning electronic toll collection (ETC) systems. Next, the paper focuses on the technical aspects of the key technologies that are currently used. The summary contains examples of different toll systems in each European Member States, which are placed in the context of their cost and relative strengths. (original abstract)
Pełny tekst
  1. Amorim M., Lobo A., Rodrigues C. et al. (2014), Optimal location of electronic toll gantries: The case of a Portuguese freeway, "Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences", 111.
  2. Ascendi (2016), Mobile Enforcement Teams. An Effective Tool For Toll Collection Enforcement, 44TH ASECAP Study and Information Days 2016. The Path Towards an Integrated And Sustainable Mobility in Europe, Madrid 23-25 May 2016.
  3. ASFINAG (2016), Tolling regulations for the motorways and expressways of Austria ver. 44,, 01.09.2016.
  4. Černý K. (2008), Electronic toll collection in the Czech Republic, Kapsch, Bulgaria.
  5. Dionori F., Manzi L., Frisoni R. et al. (2014), Technology options for the European Electronic Toll Service, European Parliament.
  6. Egeler Ch. (2004), Compliance and enforcement in free-flow tolling systems, Basel.
  7. European Commission (2009), Commission Decision of 6 October 2009 on the definition of the European Electronic Toll Service and its technical elements (Dz. U. UE L Nr 268).
  8. European Commission (2012), Communication from the Commission Implementation of the European Electronic Toll Service (COM 2012, 474).
  9. European Union (1997), Council Resolution of 17 June 1997 on the development of telematics in road transport, in particular with respect to electronic fee collection (Dz. U. UE C Nr 194).
  10. European Union (1999), Directive 1999/62/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 1999 on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructures (Dz. U. UE L Nr 187).
  11. European Union (2004), Directive 2004/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems in the Community (Dz. U. UE L Nr 166).
  12. European Union (2011), The European Electronic Toll Service (EETS). Guide for the application of the directive on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems, /doc/2011-eets-european-electronic- -toll-service_en.pdf, 23.07.2016 r.
  13. European Union (2016), Road. Public consultations. Review of Directive 2004/52/EC and Decision 2009/750/EC on the European Electronic Toll Service,, 24.07.2016.
  14. Federal Department of Finance FDF (2013), HVC - Overview, Switzerland.
  15. Inoxive (2014), Czech Tolling System at the Age of Seven, Praha.
  16. Kapsch (2016a), Czech Republic: a successful toll road network,, 24.08.2016 r.
  17. Kapsch (2016b), Austria: a successful toll road network,, 31.08.2016.
  18. Manzi L., Battiboia S., Grandserre E. et al. (2015), Study on "State of the Art of Electronic Road Tolling" MOVE/D3/2014-259, European Commission.
  19. Portugal Tolls (2016), Payment systems, de-portagens/home, 03.09.2016.
  20. Santos M.G., Santos B.F. (2012), Shadow-tolls in Portugal: How we got here and what were the impacts of introducing real tolls, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, Portugal.
  21. Toll Collect GmbH (2016a), The truck toll in Germany, Germany.
  22. Toll Collect GmbH (2016b), User information, Germany.
  23. Villalonga Torres E. (2010), Infraestructuras del Transporte, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia.
  24. Zaoral O., Mlynářová T. (2013), Czech Tolling System at the Age of Six, Inoxive.
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