BazEkon - Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie

BazEkon home page

Meny główne

Feierman Jay R. (University of New Mexico, USA)
Religion's Possible Role in Facilitating Eusocial Human Societies : a Behavioral Biology (Ethological) Perspective
Studia Humana, 2016, vol. 5(4), s. 5-33, bibliogr. 150 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Religia, Etyka chrześcijańska, System społeczny, Żydzi
Religion, Christian ethics, Social system, Jews
Eusociality is the most successful animal social system on earth. It is found in many social insects, a few crustacean species, and only three vertebrates: two African naked mole rats and human beings. Eusociality, so unusual for a vertebrate, is one of main factors leading to human beings becoming the most successful land vertebrate on earth by almost any measure. We are also unique in being the only land vertebrate with religions. Could the two be related? This article will present evidence, illustrated primarily with Judaism and Christianity, that these two seemingly unrelated social systems - eusociality and religion - that correlate temporally in our evolution, are possibly related. Evidence will also be presented that a (mostly) non-reproducing exemplar caste of celibate clergy was a eusocial-facilitating aspect of religion in western social evolution.(original abstract)
Pełny tekst
  1. Abbott, E. A History of Celibacy. Da Capo Press: Cambridge, MA, 1992.
  2. Axelrod, R. The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books, Inc.: New York, 1984.
  3. Barraza, J. A., Zak, P. J. Empathy Toward Strangers Triggers Oxytocin Release and Subsequent Generosity. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci, 1167, 2009, pp. 182-189.
  4. Batra, S. W. T. Behavior of Some Social and Solitary Halictine Bees within Their Nests: A Comparative Study (Himenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 41(1), 1968, pp. 120-133.
  5. Batson, D. C. The Altruism Question: Towards a Social-Psychological Answer. Psychology Press: Hove, UK, 1991.
  6. Bellah, R. N. Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age. The Belknap Press of Harvard University: Cambridge, MA, 2011.
  7. Bender, J., Kiersz, A., Rosen, A. Some States Have Much Higher Enlistment Rates Than Others, Business Insider. 2014, 2014-7.
  8. Bestelmeyer, P. E. G., Belin, P., Ladd D. R. A Neural Marker for Social Bias towards In-Group Accents. Cerebral Cortex, 2014, pp. 1-9.
  9. Betzig, L. Medieval Monogamy. Journal of Family History, 20(2), 1995, pp. 181-216.
  10. Betzig, L. Means, Variances, and Ranges in Reproductive Success: Comparative Evidence. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 2012, pp. 309-317.
  11. Boehm, C. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 1999.
  12. Boehm, C. Moral Origins: The Evolution of Virtue, Altruism and Shame. Basic Books: New York, 2012.
  13. Bowles, S., Gintis, H. A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and its Evolution. Princeton University Press: Princeton, 2011.
  14. Brooks, A. C. Gross National Happiness: Why Happiness Matters for Americans - and How We Can Get More of It. Basic Books: New York, 2008.
  15. Bruneau, E. G. Attitudes Towards the Out-Group are Predicted by Activity in the Precuneus in Arabs and Israelis. Neuroimage, 52(4), 2010, pp. 1704-1711.
  16. Bruneau, E. G., Dufour, N., Saxe, R. Social Cognition in Members in Conflict Groups: Behavioral and Neural Responses in Arabs, Israelis and South Americans to Each Others' Misfortunes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., 367, 2012, pp. 717-730.
  17. Bulbulia, J. et al. (eds.) The Evolution of Religion: Studies, Theories, & Critiques. Collins Foundation Press: Santa Margarita, CA, 2008.
  18. Burdette, A. M. et al. Serving God and country? Religious Involvement and Military Service among Young Men. Journal Scientific Study of Religion, 48(4), 2009, pp. 794-904.
  19. Campbell, J. The Many Faces of God: Science's 400-Year Quest for Images of the Divine. W. W. Norton & Company: New York, 2006.
  20. Carr, L. et al. Neural Mechanisms of Empathy in Humans: A Relay from Neural Systems for Imitation to Limbic Areas. PNAS, 100(9), 2002, pp. 5497-5502.
  21. Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed.). Doubleday: New York, NY, 1995.
  22. Chak, S. T. C., Bauer, R., Thiel, M. Social Behavior and Recognition in Decapod Shrimps with Emphasis on the Caridea. In. L. Aquiloni, E. Tricarico (eds.). Social Recognition in Invertebrates: The Knowns and the Unknowns. Springer: Berlin, 2015, pp. 57-84
  23. Cloninger, R. C. The Psychobiological Regulation of Social Cooperation. Nat Med, 1, 1995, pp. 623-625.
  24. Cloninger, R. C., Kedia, S. The Phylogenesis of Human Personality: Indentifying the Precursors of Cooperation, Altruism and Well-Being. In. R. W. Sussman, C. R. Cloninger (eds.). Origins of Altruism and Cooperation, Springer: New York, 2011, pp. 63-107.
  25. Cochini, C. Apostolic Origins of Priestly Celibacy. Ignatius Press: San Francisco, CA, 1990.
  26. Cooper, A. Raw Data: Religious Preferences in the Military, 2009.
  27. Cram, L. et al. Implicit Indicators of National Identity Modulate Brain Activation When Processing Empathy for In-Group and Out-Group Members in Pain. Abstract from BNA 2015, Festival of Neuroscience, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2015, pp. 671-672.
  28. Dawkins, R. The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1978.
  29. De Cantanzaro, D. Suicide and Self-Damaging Behavior: A Sociobiological Perspective. Academic Press: New York, 1981.
  30. Decety, J. The Neural Pathways, Development and Functions of Empathy. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 3, 2015, pp. 1-6.
  31. Decety, J, Ickes W. The Social Science of Empathy. The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 2009.
  32. De Dreu, C. K. W. et al. Oxytocin Promotes Human Ethnocentrism. PNAS, 108(4), 2011, pp. 12621266.
  33. de Vignemont, F., Singer, T. The Empathic Brain: How, When and Why? Trends in Cognitive Science, 10(10), 2006, pp. 435-441.
  34. de Waal, F. Chimpanzee Politics. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, 2007.
  35. de Waal, F. The Age of Empathy: Nature 's Lessons for a Kinder Society. Three Rivers Press: New York: 2009.
  36. de Waal, F. The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism among the Primates. W. W. Norton & Company: New York, 2013.
  37. Diaz-Munoz, S. L. Cooperating to Compete: Altruism, Sexual selection and Causes of Male Reproductive Cooperation. Animal Behavior, 88, 2013, pp. 67-78.
  38. Duffy, J. E. Eusociality in a Coral-Reef Shrimp. Nature, 381 (6 June), 1996, pp. 512-514.
  39. Dunkel, C. S., Dutton, E. Religiosity as a Predictor of In-Group Favoritism within and between Religious Groups. Personality and individual differences, 98, 2016, pp. 311-314.
  40. Dyshniku, F. et al. Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia. Arch Sexual Behavior, 44(3), 2015, pp. 215-259.
  41. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Ethology: The Biology of Behavior, 2nd Edition. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.: New York, 1975.
  42. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Human Ethology. Aldine de Gruyter: New York, 1989.
  43. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Dominance, Submission, and Love: Sexual Pathologies from the Perspective of Ethology. In. J. R. Feierman (ed.). Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions. Springer: New York, 1990, pp. 150-175.
  44. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. Us and Others: The Familial Roots of Ethnonationalism. In. I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, F. K. Slater (eds.). Ethnic Conflict and Indoctrination: Altruism and Identity in Evolutionary Perspecive Berghahn Books: New York, 1998, pp. 21-53.
  45. Eisenberg, N., Miller, P. A. The Relation of Empathy to Prosocial and Related Behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 101(1), 1987, pp. 91-119.
  46. Eliade, M. Patterns in Comparative Religion. Meridian Books: New York, 1958.
  47. Erdos, R., Ortiz, A. American Indian Myths and Legends. Pantheon Books: New York, 1984.
  48. Feierman, J. R. A Biosocial Overview of Adult Human Sexual Behavior with Children and Adolescents. In. J. R. Feierman (ed.). Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions Springer: New York, 1990, pp. 8-68.
  49. Feierman, J. R. (ed.). The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion Praeger/ABC-CIO: Santa Barbara, CA, 2009.^ 50. Feierman, J. R. How Some Major Components of Religion Could Have Evolved by Natural Selection. In. E. Voland, W. Schiefenhovel (eds.). The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior. Springer, Berlin, 2009, pp. 51-66
  50. Feierman, J. R. The Evolutionary History of Religious Behavior. In. J. R. Feierman (ed.). The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion Praeger/ABC-CIO: Santa Barbara, CA, 2009, pp. 71-86.
  51. Feierman, J. R. Pedophilia: Its Relationship to the Homosexualities and the Roman Catholic Church, Parts I and II. Antonianum, LXXXXV (3, 4), 2010, oman_Catholic_Church_Part_I, pp. 451-477, https ://www. academia. edu/4176464/Pedophilia_Its_Relationship_to_the_Homosexualities_and_the_R oman_Catholic_Church_Part_II, 617-649.
  52. Feierman, J. R. The Image of the God to Whom We Pray: An Evolutionary Psychobiological Perspective. Pensamiento, 67(254), 2011, Psychobiological_Perspective, pp. 817-829.
  53. Feierman, J. R. The Biology of Religious Belief, Emotion and Behavior: A Natural Science Perspective. In. D. Evers et al. (eds.). Studies in Science and Theology. Yearbook of the European Society for the Study of Science and Theology, 15 (2015/2016), 2016, Natural_Science_Perspective, pp. 41-62.
  54. Galen, L. W. Does Religious Belief Promote Prosociality? A Critical Examination. Psychological Bulletin, 138(5), 2012, pp. 876-906.
  55. Gallese, V. The 'Shared Manifold' Hypothesis: From Mirror Neurons to Empathy. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(5-7), 2001, pp. 33-50.
  56. Goodwin, G. Myths and Tales of the White Mountain Apache. The University of Arizona Press: Tucson, 1994.
  57. Gowdy, J., Krall, L. The Economic Origins of Ultrasociality. BehavBrain Sci, Apr 27, 2015, pp. 1- 63.
  58. Grammer, K. Signale der Liebe: Die Biologischen Gesetze der Partnerschaft. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG: Munchen, 1995.
  59. Gronbjerg, K. A., Never, B. The Role of Religious Networks and Other Factors in Types of Volunteer Work. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 14, 2004, pp. 263-289.
  60. Hager, R., Jones, C. B. (eds.). Reproductive Skew in Vertebrates: Proximate and Ultimate Causes. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2009.
  61. Hamilton, W. D. The Genetical Theory of Social Behavior, Parts I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 12(1), 1964, pp. 12-45.
  62. Hammer, M. F. et al. Sex-Biased Evolutionary Forces Shape Genomic Patterns of Human Diversity. PLOS Genetics, Sept. 36, 2008, doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000202.
  63. Hardy, A. The Biology of God: A Scientist 's Study of Man the Religious Animal. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1975.
  64. Harris, L. T., Fiske, S. T. Dehumanizing the Lowest of the Low: Neuroimaging Responses to Extreme Out-Groups. Psychological Science, 17(10), 2006, pp. 847-853.
  65. Heid, S. Celibacy in the Early Church: The Beginning of a Discipline of Obligatory Continence for Clerics in East and West. Ignatius Press: San Francisco, CA, 2000.
  66. Herzmann, G., Curran, T. Neural Correlates of the In-Group Memory Advantage on the Encoding and Recognition of Faces. PLOS ONE, 8(12), 2013, e82797.
  67. Hill, K. R. et al. Co-Residence Patterns in Hunter-Gather Societies Show Unique Human Social Structure. Science, 331(6022), 2011, pp. 1286-1289.
  68. Hobson, N. M., Inzlicht, M. The Mere Presence of an Out-Group Member Disrupts the Brain's Feedback-Monitoring System. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2016, doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw082, pp. 1-9.
  69. Hrdy, S. B. Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 2009.
  70. Jacob, S. et al. Paternally Inherited HLA Alleles Are Associated with Women's Choice of Male Odor. Nature Genetics, 30, 2002, pp. 175-179.
  71. James, W. Biological and Psychosocial Determinants of Male and Female Sexual Orientation. Journal of Biological Science, 37(5), 2005, pp. 555-567.
  72. Joiner et al. Suicide as a Derangement of the Self-Sacrificial Aspect of Eusociality. Psychological Review, 123(3), 2016, pp. 235-254.
  73. Kandler, C. et al. The Genetic and Environmental Roots of Variance in Negativity toward Foreign Nationals. Behav Genet, 45(2), 2015, pp. 181-199.
  74. Knutson, K. M. Politics on the Brain: An fMRI Investigation. Soc. Neurosci., 1(1), 2007, pp. 2540.
  75. Korte, A-M., de Haardt, M. The Boundaries of Monotheism: Interdisciplinary Explorations into the Foundations of Western Monotheism. Brill: Leiden, 2009.
  76. Krasnec, M. O., Breed, M. D. Eusocial Evolution and the Recognition System in Social Insects. Adv Exp Med Biol, 739, 2012, pp. 78-92.
  77. Kruger, D. J. Socio-Demographic Factors Intensifying Male Mating Competition Exacerbate Male Mortality Rates. Evolutionary Psychology, 8(2), 2010, pp. 194-204.
  78. Kruger, D. J., Fitzgerald, C. J. Understanding Sex Differences in Human Mortality Rates through Tinbergen's Four Questions. Human Ethology Bulletin, 26(2), 2011, pp. 8-24.
  79. Lankford, A. Is Suicide Terrorism Really the Product of an Evolved Sacrificial Tendency? A Review of Mammalian Research and Application of Evolutionary Theory. Comprehensive Psychology, 4, article 21, 2015. doi: 10.2466/12.19CP.4.21.
  80. Lazerwitz, B. Membership in Voluntary Associations and Frequency of Church Attendance. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2, 1962, pp. 74-84.
  81. Leeming, D. A., Leeming, M. A. Dictionary of Creation Myths. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1994.
  82. Leighton, D. R. Gibbons: Territoriality and Monogamy. In. B. B. Smuts et al. (eds.). Primate Societies (pp. 135-145). University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1986.
  83. Lipka, M. How Highly Religious Americans' Lives Are Different from Others, 2016. from-others/.
  84. Lorenz, K. V. Analogy as a Source of Knowledge. Science, 185(4147), 1974, pp. 229-234.
  85. Luo, S. et al. Oxytocin Receptor Gene and Racial In-Group Bias in Empathy-Related Brain Activity. Neuroimage, 110, 2015, pp. 22-31.
  86. Luy, M. Causes of Male Excess Mortality: Insights from Cloistered Populations. Population and Development, 39(4), 2003, pp. 647-676.
  87. Lynch, J. H. The Medieval Church. Longman: London, 1992.
  88. MacDonald, K. The Establishment and Maintenance of Socially Imposed Monogamy in Western Europe. Politics and the Life Sciences, 14, 1995, pp. 2-23.
  89. Mackey, W. C. Fathering Behaviors: The Dynamics of the Man-Child Bond. Plenum Press: New York, 1985.
  90. Martin, L. H., Wiebe, D. Pro- and Assortative-Sociality in the Formation and Maintenance of Religious Groups. Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion, 2(1), 2014, pp. 1-57.
  91. Mitchell, R. W. A Comparative-Developmental Approach to Understanding Imitation. In. P. Bateson & P. Klopfer (eds.). Perspectives in Ethology, Volume 7: Alternatives Plenum Press: New York, 1987, pp. 183-215.
  92. Molenberghs, P. et al. Increased Moral Sensitivity for Outgroup Perpetrators Harming In-Group Members. Cerebral Cortex, 26(1), 2016, pp. 225-233.
  93. Monsma, S. V. Religion and Philanthropic Giving and Volunteerism: Building Blocks for Civic Responsibility. Interdisciplinary Journal of Religious Research, 3, 2007, pp. 2-28.
  94. Moussaid, M. et al. Social Influence and the Collective Dynamics of Opinion Formation. PLOS ONE, 8(11), 2013, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078433.
  95. Neusner, J., Chilton, B. Altruism in World Religions. Georgetown University Press: Washington, D.C., 2005.
  96. New American Bible. World Catholic Press: Totowa, NJ, 1987.
  97. Norenzayan, A. et al.. The Cultural Evolution of Prosocial Religions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2014. doi:
  98. Nowak, M. A., Highfield, R. SuperCooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed. Free Press: New York, 2011.
  99. Nowak, M. A., Sigmund, K. Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity. Nature, 437(17 October), 2005, pp. 1291-1298.
  100. Nowak, M. A., Tarnita, C. E., Wilson, E. O. The Evolution of Eusociality. Nature, 466 (26 August), 2010, pp. 1057-1062.
  101. Oman, D. Spiritual Modeling and the Social Learning of Spirituality and Religion. In. K. Pargament (ed.). APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion and Spirituality: Vol 1. Context, Theory, and Research.American Psychological Association Press: Washington, D. C., 2013, pp. 187-204.
  102. O'Riain, M. J., Jarvis, J. U. M. Colony Member Recognition and Xenophobia in the Naked Mole Rat. Animal Behavior, 53(3), 1997, pp. 487-498.
  103. Oviedo, L. Religious Attitudes and Prosocial Behavior: A Systematic Review of Published Research. Religion, Brain and Behavior, 6(2), 2016, pp. 169-184.
  104. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2016.
  105. Pharoah, C., Tanner, S. Trends in Charitable Giving. Fiscal Studies, 18, 1997, pp. 427-443.
  106. Phelps, E. A. Emotion and Cognition: Insights from Studies of the Human Amygdala. Annu Rev Psychol, 57, 2006, pp. 27-53.
  107. Phipps, W. E. Clerical Celibacy: The Heritage. Continuum: New York, NY, 2004.
  108. Powers, S. T., van Schaik, C. P., Lehmann, L. How Institutions Shaped the Last Major Evolutionary Transition to Large-Scale Human Societies. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2016, 371(1687): 20150098. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0098.
  109. Purzycki, B. G. Moralistic Gods, Supernatural Punishment and the Expansion of Human Sociality. Nature, 530(7590), 2016, pp. 327-330.
  110. Rappaport, R. A. Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1999.
  111. Ratner, K. G., Amodio, D. M. Seeing 'Us' vs. 'Them': Minimal Group Effects on the Neural Encoding of Faces. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 2013, pp. 298-301.
  112. Reichard, G. A. Navajo Religion. Princeton University Press: Princeton, 1990.
  113. Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R. The Evolution of Human Eusociality. In. I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, F. K. Salter (eds.). Ethnic Conflict and Indoctrination: Altruism and Indoctrination in Evolutionary Perspective. Berghahn Books: New York, 1998, pp. 71-95.
  114. Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R. Culture is Part of Human Biology: Why the Superorganic Concept Serves the Human Sciences Badly. In. M. Goodman, A. S. Moffat (eds.). Probing Human Origins (American Academy of Arts and Science: Cambridge, MA, 2002., pp. 59-86.
  115. Robbins, M. M. Male-Male Interactions in Heterosexual and All-Male Wild Mountain Gorilla Groups. Ethology, 102(7), 2010, pp. 942-965.
  116. Ronquillo, J. et al. The Effects of Skin Tone on Race-Related Amygdala Activity: An fMRI Investigation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2007. doi:10.1093/scan/ns1043.
  117. Ross, C. T., Hooper, P. L., Borgerhoff Mulder, M. Data on the Frequency of Non-Reproductive Adults in a Cross-Cultural Sample of Small-Scale Human Societies. bioRxiv, 2015. doi: 10.1101/032318. http://biorxiv. org/content/early/2015/11/20/032318.full.pdf+html.
  118. Ryan, C., Jetha, C. Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships. Harper: New York, 2011.
  119. Sanderson, S. K. The Evolution of Religious Behavior in its Socioecological Contexts. In J. R. Feierman (ed.). The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion. Praeger/ABC-CLIO: Santa Barbara, CA, 2009, pp. 3-19.
  120. Schmitt, D. P., Fuller, R. C. On the Varieties of Sexual Experience: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of the Link between Religiosity and Human Mating Strategies. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2015.
  121. Schreiber, D., Iacoboni, M. Huxtables on the Brain: An fMRI Study of Race and Norm Violation. Political Psychology, 2012. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012.00879x.
  122. Schwartz, R. M. The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monotheism. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1997.
  123. Seewald, P., Benedict XVI, P. Light of the World: The Pope, The Church, and the Signs of the Times. Ignatius Press: San Francisco, CA, 2010.
  124. Selin, G. Priestly Celibacy: Theological Foundations. The Catholic University of American Press: Washington, D. C., 2016.
  125. Sherman, P. W., Jarvis, J. U. M., Alexander, R. D. (eds.). The Biology of the Naked Mole Rat. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1991.
  126. Shkurko, A. V. Is Social Categorization Based on Relational Ingroup/Outgroup Opposition? A Meta-Analysis. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 8(8), 2012, pp. 870-877.
  127. Smuts, B. B. et al. (eds.). Primate Societies. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1986.
  128. Taub, D. M. The Functions of Primate Paternalism: A Cross-Species Review. In. J. R. Feierman (ed.). Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions. New York: Springer, 1990, pp. 338-377.
  129. Taylor, C. A Secular Age. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 2007.
  130. ter Borg, M. B., van Henten, J. W. Religion as a Social and Spiritual Force. Fordham University Press: New York, 2010.
  131. Tinbergen, N. The Study of Instinct. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1951.
  132. Toi, M., Batson, C. D. More Evidence that Empathy is a Source of Altruistic Motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(2), 1982, pp. 281-292.
  133. Trivers, R. L. The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 46(1), 1971, pp. 35-57.
  134. Uller, T., Helantera, H. Towards an Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Cooperation? Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 48, 2014, pp. 267-271.
  135. Van Cappellen et al.. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on Spirituality and Emotional Response to Meditation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 11(10), 2016, pp. 1579-1587.
  136. Van Lange P. A. M. Does Empathy Trigger Only Altruistic Motivation? How About Selflessness or Justice? Emotion, 8(6), 2008, pp. 766-774.
  137. Voland, E., Schiefenhovel, W. (eds.). The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior. Springer: Berlin, 2009.
  138. Walker, R. S. et al. Evolutionary History of Hunter-Gather Marriages Practices. PLOS ONE, 6(4), 2011. e19066. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019066.
  139. Wallen, K., Baum, M. J. Masculinization and Defeminization in Altrical and Precocial Mammals: Comparative Aspects of Steroid Hormone Action. Hormone, Brain and Behavior, 4, 2002, pp. 385423.
  140. Whitehouse, H. Modes of Religiosity: A Cognitive Theory of Religious Transmission. AltaMira Press: Lanham, MD, 2004.
  141. Wightman, G. J. The Origins of Religion in the Paeleolithic. Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham, MD, 2015.
  142. Wilder, J. A., Mobasher, Z., Hammer, M. F. Genetic Evidence for Unequal Population Size of Human Males and Females. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21(11), 2004, pp. 2047-2057.
  143. Wilson, D. S. Does Altruism Exist? Culture, Genes, and the Welfare of Others. Yale University Press: Newhaven, 2016.
  144. Wilson, E. O. The Insect Societies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1971.
  145. Wilson, E. O. The Social Conquest of the Earth. Liveright Publishing Corporation/W. W. Norton & Company: New York, 2012.
  146. Wilson, J., Musick, M. Who Cares? Towards an Integrated Theory of Volunteer Work. American Sociological Review, 62, 1997, pp. 694-713.
  147. Wright, R. The Evolution of God. Little, Brown and Company: New York, 2009.
  148. Yamagishi, T., Mifune, N. Parochial Altruism: Does it Explain Modern Human Group
  149. Psychology. Current Opinions in Psychology, 7, 2016, pp. 39-43.
  150. Young, A. J. The Causes of Physiological Suppression in Vertebrate Societies: A Synthesis. In R. Hager, C. B. Jones (eds.). op. cit. 2009, pp. 397-446.
Cytowane przez
Udostępnij na Facebooku Udostępnij na Twitterze Udostępnij na Google+ Udostępnij na Pinterest Udostępnij na LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu