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Hrabakova Lud'ka (Uniwersytet Techniczny w Libercu)
Otázka pojetí člověka ve vztahu ke kultuře z pohledu kulturní antropologie
Human Being and Its Reference to Culture from the Point of View of Cultural Anthropology
Prace Naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej we Wrocławiu. Nauki Humanistyczne (8), 2003, nr 1008, s. 173-182
Słowa kluczowe
Antropologia, Filozofia człowieka, Zachowania międzyludzkie, Antropologia kultury
Anthropology, Human philosophy, Interpersonal behaviours, Cultural anthropology
W kontekście antropologii kulturowej omówiono istotę bycia człowiekiem oraz zwrócono uwagę na różnice pomiędzy ludźmi a zwierzętami.

The article refers to complicated and ambiguous question: "What is the main difference between human and animal?". The problem of determination of clear distinction between them is especially discussed. The main issue proposed in the article is whether ridge separating human and animal is so distinct as used to be generally supposed. The attention is paid to main traits supposed to be typical human: using tools, learning ability, creating of social structures, language: none of them is typical only for human. It seems, that differences between human and animal are often stressed and similarities are ignored. Similarities are numerous and many differences are quantitative rather than qualitative. The main difference between human and other primates is brain size and its complexity, erect pace, articulate speech, supporting indisposed members of group and creating kinship systems. Other main difference is creating and using of symbols, however animals use for communication signals, simple form of symbols. Again we can see the difference rather in complexity, than in a new quality of these traits supposed to be "typical human". In the science studying relation between human and culture, cultural anthropology, prevails the opinion, that the main difference between human and animal is culture. Without culture it's not possible to speak about human, without human beings culture couldn't exist. We must nevertheless admit, that we can observe cultural or better "protocultural" behavior by many primates and also by other species. Culture or "protoculture" is therefore typical not only for human, but in human society is cultural behavior especially evolved. In the conclusion must be submitted, that all so far made attempts unambigously determine distinction between human and animal could be impeached. Exclusiveness of human being is nevertheless unambiguous and it originate from unique combination of abilities and facilities and developing of important adaptive traits, which dispose also other species of animal kingdom. (original abstract)
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Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu
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