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Włodarska Agata
Russian-Estonian Relations after 2007 : Current Status and Development Prospects
International Studies : Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal, 2011, vol. 13, s. 40-47
Słowa kluczowe
Stosunki międzynarodowe, Przestępstwa komputerowe
International relations, Cybercrime
Rosja, Estonia
Russia, Estonia
The article highlights the major points that have influenced relations between Russia and Estonia after 2007. These relations were rather poor during the post-Soviet period. The number of Russian people who lived in Estonia after gaining independence in 1991 exceeded 30%, which resulted in the very keen interest of Russia in Estonian politics. April 2007 created a new reality for relations between the countries. The decision to move the statues of Second World War Soviet soldiers from main squares to cemeteries provoked negative reactions from Russians living in Estonia, but also infuriated leaders of the Russian government. As a consequence there were harsh verbal attacks from Moscow, the Estonian ambassador to Moscow was harassed, cyberspace attacks took place and traffic over the bridge in Narva, which is a key highway from Russia, was blocked. The Estonian authorities know there is no point in maintaining conflict with Russia. The President of Estonia, Toomas Hendrik Ilves, has stressed that Estonia's relationship with its biggest neighbour, Russia, can only get better. Russia plays an incredibly important role in the Estonian economy and tourist industry, according to Andrus Ansip, the Prime Minister of Estonia.(original abstract)
Pełny tekst
  1. S. Woehrel, CRS Report for Congress: Estonia - current issues and U.S. policy, July 2007, p. 1-2, from the Congressional Report Service website [] 02.10.2010.
  2. Baltic-Russian relations and European integration, eds. E. Berg, P. Ehin, Ashgate Publishing Limited 2009 England, p. 1-2.
  3. T. Mătlik, Estonian Integration Strategy 2008-2013, Tallinn Conference on Conceptualizing Integration, 18-19. 10.2009 (; 07.10.2010).
  4. A. Włodarska, The structure of unemployment in Estonia after 1991, [in:] "XXI wek: Gumanitarnye i Socialno - Ekonomiceskie Nauki", Tuła 2010, p. 122-125.
  5. V. Made, 'Estonian-Russian relations in the context of the international system,' in A. Kasekamp (ed.) The Estonian Foreign Policy Yearbook 2005, Tallinn: Eesti Välispoliitika Instituut, 2005, pp. 93-110
  6. I. Melchior, Beyond the cold bronze, [in] Cultural Anthropology Bsc. & Sociology Bsc., 2007, p. 1, ( - 09.08.2008).
  7. J. Carr, L. Shepherd, Inside Cyber Warfare: Mapping the Cyber Underworld, 2010, p. 180 - 181.
  8. M. Landler, J. Markoff, In Estonia: What may be the first war in cyberspace?, "International Herald Tribune", 28th May 2007, (04.10.2010).
  9. K. Liik, The Bronze Year of Estonian - Russian relations, p. 73-75. (03.10.2010).
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