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Autor
Nosonovsky Michael (College of Engineering and Applied Science; University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, the United States of America)
Tytuł
Connecting Sacred and Mundane : from Bilingualism to Hermeneutics in Hebrew Epitaphs
Źródło
Studia Humana, 2017, vol. 6(2), s. 96-106, bibliogr. 19 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Żydzi, Religia, Językoznawstwo
Jews, Religion, Linguistics
Uwagi
summ.
Abstrakt
Gravestones with Hebrew inscriptions are the most common class of Jewish monuments still present in such regions as Ukraine or Belarus. Epitaphs are related to various Biblical, Rabbinical, and liturgical texts. Despite that, the genre of Hebrew epitaphs seldom becomes an object of cultural or literary studies. In this paper, I show that a function of Hebrew epitaphs is to connect the ideal world of Hebrew sacred texts to the world of everyday life of a Jewish community. This is achieved at several levels. First, the necessary elements of an epitaph - name, date, and location marker - place the deceased person into a specific absolute context. Second, the epitaphs quote Biblical verses with the name of the person thus stressing his/her similarity to a Biblical character. Third, there is Hebrew/Yiddish orthography code-switching between the concepts found in the sacred books and those from the everyday world. Fourth, the epitaphs occupy an intermediate position between the professional and folk literature. Fifth, the epitaphs are also in between the canonical and folk religion. I analyze complex hermeneutic mechanisms of indirect quotations in the epitaphs and show that the methods of actualization of the sacred texts are similar to those of the Rabbinical literature. Furthermore, the dichotomy between the sacred and profane in the epitaphs is based upon the Rabbinical concept of the 'Internal Jewish Bilingualism' (Hebrew/Aramaic or Hebrew/Yiddish), which is parallel to the juxtaposition of the Written and Oral Torah. (original abstract)
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Bibliografia
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  1. Fogelman, M. Tehe nišmato ẓerura bi-ẓeror ha-ḥayim, Sinay, 49, 1961, pp. 176-180 (in Hebrew).
  2. Isserles, Moses ben Israel 'Oraḥ Hayim, 472.4 gloss 2 Lemberg: .S.L. Kugel, 1866
  3. Judah Loew ben Bezalel (ha-Maharal from Prague), Hidduše 'Aggadot, Soṭah 33a, Jerusalem: 1972 (in Hebrew).
  4. Judah Loew ben Bezalel (ha-Maharal from Prague), Tiferet Yiśra'el, 13, Kiryat Yoel: 2007 (in Hebrew).
  5. Heilman, S. When a Jew Dies, Berkley: University of California Press, 2001.
  6. Horowitz, Isaiah (Šela), Šney luḥot habrit, Pesaḥim, Maẓa Šemura Jerusalem : E. Munk, 1992 (in Hebrew).
  7. Horst, Van der, P. W. Ancient Jewish Epitaphs: an Introductory Survey of a Millennium of Jewish Funeral Epigraphy (300 BCE - 700 CE), Kok Pharos: Kampen, 1991.
  8. Kraemer, D. The Meanings of Death in Rabbinical Judaism, London, New York: Routledge, 2000.
  9. Krajewska, M. Cmentarze żydowskie w Polsce: nagrobki i epitafia, Polska sztuka ludowa, 1-2, 1989, pp. 27-44.
  10. Naḥman of Bratzlav, Liqute Moharan, New York, 1966, Liqute Moharan 1:19.
  11. Nahon, G. Inscriptions hebraiques et juives de France medievale, Paris: Belle Lettres, 1986.
  12. Nosonovsky, M. Hebrew epitaphs of the 16th century from Ukraine, Monuments of Culture: New Discoveries - 1998, Nauka, Moscow, 1999, pp. 16-27 (in Russian).
  13. Nosonovsky, M. The scholastic lexicon in Ashkenazi Hebrew and orthography, Pinkas. Journal of the Culture and History of East European Jewry , 2, Zara, Vilnius, 2008, pp 53-76.
  14. Nosonovsky, M. Folk beliefs, mystics and superstitions in Ashkenazi and Karaite tombstone inscriptions from Ukraine, Markers, 26, 2009, pp. 120-147.
  15. Nosonovsky, M. Old Jewish Cemeteries in Ukraine: History, Monuments, Epitaphs, In. M. Chlenov (ed.), The Euro-Asian Jewish Yearbook - 5768 (2007/2008), Moscow: Pallada, pp. 237-261.
  16. Weinreich M. History of the Yiddish Language, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
  17. Shapira D. Yiddish-German, Slavic, or Oriental?, Karadeniz Araştırmaları, 6, 2010, pp. 127-140.
  18. Wodziński, M. Groby cadyków w Polsce. O chasydzkiej literaturze nagrobnej i jej kontekstach, Wrocław: Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Polonistyki Wrocławskiej, 1998.
  19. Yiśra'el Yosef Dov Ber of Vilednik, Še'arit Yiśra'el, Zemanim, Šavuot 6 (in Hebrew).
Cytowane przez
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ISSN
2299-0518
Język
eng
URI / DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/sh-2017-0013
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