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Autor
Małobęcka Iga (Utrecht University)
Tytuł
Hub-and-spoke cartel - How to Assess Horizontal Collusion in Disguise?
Kartel typu hub-and-spoke - ukryta zmowa horyzontalna?
Źródło
Krytyka Prawa, 2016, T. 8, Nr 2, s. 64-78, bibliogr. 25 poz.,
Słowa kluczowe
Prawo, Konkurencja, Wymiana informacji
Law, Competition, Information exchange
Uwagi
summ., streszcz.,
Abstrakt
Zwiększona skuteczność w zakresie egzekwowania prawa konkurencji przyczyniła się do pojawienia się nietypowego rodzaju kartelu, który angażuje nie tylko konkurentów, lecz również ich wspólnego dostawcę (lub detalistę). Ten tzw. kartel typu hub-and-spoke polega na wymianie informacji strategicznych między dwoma lub większą liczbą konkurentów (tzw. spoke) za pośrednictwem wspólnego kontrahenta działającego na innym poziomie łańcucha produkcji/dystrybucji (tzw. hub), który zwykle przyczynia się do stabilizacji kartelu.(abstrakt oryginalny)

The European Commission has always attached high priority to the detection of cartels. Article 101(1) TFEU, which together with Article 102 TFEU constitutes the core of the EU competition law, explicitly prohibits agreements, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices that may affect trade between Member States and have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the internal market.(original abstract)
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Bibliografia
Pokaż
  1. Communication from the Commission - Guidelines on the applicability of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to horizontal co-operation agreements, OJ C 11, 14.01.2011, pp. 1-72.
  2. Communication from the Commission - Guidelines on the applicability of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to horizontal co-operation agreements, OJ C 11/1, 14.01.2011.
  3. Damages Directive - Towards more effective enforcement of the EU competition rules, European Commission 2015.
  4. Directive 2014/104/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 November 2014 on certain rules governing actions for damages under national law for infringements of the competition law provisions of the Member States and of the European Union, OJ L 349, 5.12.2014, pp. 1-19.
  5. Guidance on restrictions of competition "by object" for the purpose of defining which agreements may benefit from the De Minimis Notice, European Commission, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/competition/antitrust/legislation/de_minimis_notice_annex.pdf.
  6. Guidelines on the method of setting fines imposed pursuant to Article 23(2)(a) of Regulation No 1/2003, OJ C 210, 1.09.2006.
  7. Guidelines on Vertical Restraints, OJ C 130, 19.05.2010, pp. 1-46. http://ec.europa.eu/competition/cartels/statistics/statistics.pdf.
  8. OECD, Information Exchanges Between Competitors under Competition Law, 2010, available at: http://www.oecd.org/competition/cartels/48379006.pdf.
  9. Report on Competition Policy 2014, European Commission 2015, COM(2015) 247, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/competition/publications/annual_report/2014/part1_en.pdf.
  10. Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, OJ C 326, 26.10.2012, pp. 47-390.
  11. Bailey D., "Publicly Distancing" Oneself from a Cartel, "World Competition" 2008, 31(2).
  12. Bishop S., Walker M., The Economics of EC Competition Law: Concepts, Application and Measurement, London 2010, pp. 167-168.
  13. Bolecki A., Polish Antitrust Experience with Hub-and-Spoke Conspiracies, "Yearbook of Antitrust and Regulatory Studies" 2011, 4(5).
  14. CRA, Effects Analysis in Hub and Spoke Cartels, 2010.
  15. De Stefano G., AC-Treuhand Judgment: A Broader Scope for EU Competition Law Infringements?, "Journal of European Competition Law & Practice" 2015, 6(10).
  16. European Competition Lawyers Forum, Comments on the Draft Guidelines on the Applicability of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to Horizontal Co-operation Agreements, 2010.
  17. Odudu O., Hub and Spoke Collusion, [in:] I. Lianos, D. Geradin (eds.), Handbook on European Competition Law, Cheltenham 2013.
  18. Odudu O., Indirect Information Exchange: The Constituent Elements of Hub and Spoke Collusion, "European Competition Journal" 2011, 7(2).
  19. Orbach B., Hub-and-Spoke Conspiracies, "Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper" 2016, 16(11), available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2765476.
  20. Prewitt E., Fails G., Indirect information exchanges to hub-and-spoke cartels: enforcement and litigation trends in the United States and Europe, "Competition Law & Policy Debate" 2015, 1(2).
  21. Sahuguet N., Walckiers A., Selling to a cartel of retailers: a model of hub-and-spoke collusion, "CEPR Discussion Paper" 2013, 9385.
  22. Van Cayseele P., Hub-and-spoke Collusion: Some Nagging Questions Raised by Economists, "Journal of European Competition Law & Practice" 2014, 5(3).
  23. Van Cayseele P., Miegielsen S., Hub-and-Spoke Collusion by Embargo, "CES - Discussion Paper Series" 2013, 24.
  24. Whelan P., Trading negotiations between Retailers and Suppliers: A Fertile Ground for Anti-Competitive Horizontal Information Exchange?, "European Competition Journal" 2009, 5(3).
  25. Whish R., Bailey D., Competition law, Oxford 2012.
Cytowane przez
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ISSN
2450-7938
2080-1084
Język
eng
URI / DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.7206/kp.2080-1084.110
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