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Xingen Li
Cybercrime and Punishment
International Studies : Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal, 2009/2010, vol. 11/12, s. 39-56, rys., bibliogr. 71 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Przestępstwa komputerowe, Przestępczość, Podejmowanie decyzji
Cybercrime, Crime, Decision making
The idea of deterrence has existed in fragmented forms for several centuries in both eastern and western philosophy and law. However, it is generally accepted that the identification of economic aspects in illegal activities began in the US in the late 1960s. Gary S. Becker's article "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach", published in 1968, is considered the earliest study of crime from an economic perspective. Becker seeks to observe criminal behaviour in the light of purely economic factors as he perceives crime as the consequence of rational estimations of the lawbreaker. The economic approach to crime starts from a plain hypothesis that all people take action rationally, and make a decision whether to perpetrate crime by comparing the benefits and costs of engaging in crime. If the action produces more expected benefits than expected costs, the person will carry out the action, even if it is an unlawful act. The individual estimates all her or his actual opportunities of gaining legal returns, the sum of returns offered by these opportunities, the sum of returns offered by different illicit ways, the probability of being arrested if she or he acts illegally, and the possible penalty if she or he is seized. After making these estimations, she or he chooses the act or profession with the maximum discounted return. (fragment of text)
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