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Włodarska-Frykowska Agata (University of Łódź, Poland)
Migration Processes In Contemporary Estonia
International Studies : Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal, 2017, vol. 20, nr 1, s. 63-73, rys., bibliogr. 10 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Migracja, Rozwój społeczny, Przemiany społeczne
Migration, Social development, Social change
This article examines migration trends in contemporary Estonia, focusing on migrant movements, legal regulations applying to migrants and national policies dealing with migration. Estonia is a multi-ethnic country in which both immigration and emigration occur on a considerable scale; consequently, understanding migration patterns and trends is particularly important. Historical factors have influenced Estonian society in a way which has necessitated the implementation of integration programmes and strategies aimed at social consolidation. The article features an analysis of the main changes in migration movements in Estonia since it gained independence and presents contemporary tendencies.(original abstract)
Pełny tekst
  1. Antrop, M., Why landscapes of the past are important for the future. "Landscape and Urban Planning", 1-2, 2005, pp. 21-34. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.10.002
  2. Castles, S. and de Haas. H, and Miller. M. J, Age of Migration. Palgrave, New York 2013.
  3. Castles, S., International Migration at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century: Global Trends and Issues, "International Social Science Journal", 165, 2010, pp. 269-281.
  4. Kowalenko, J., and Mensah. P, and Leončikas. T, New Immigrations In Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Legal Information Centre for Human Rights, Tallinn 2010, pp. 4-10.
  5. Okólski, M., The effects of political and economic transition on international migration in Central and Eastern Europe, [in] International Migration. Prospects and Policies, eds. J.E. Taylor and D.S. Massey, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004, pp. 35-58. doi: 10.1093/0199269009.003.0003
  6. Patten. A, and Kymlicka. W, Introduction: Language Rights and Political Theory: Contexts, Issues, and Approaches, [in] Language Rights and Political Theory, eds. A. Patten and W. Kymlicka, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2003, pp. 2-36.
  7. State Programme Integration in Estonian Society 2000-2007 adopted by the Estonian Government (14 March 2000). Web. 15 June 2015 .
  8. State Programme Integration in Estonian Society 2008-2013, Tallinn 2008. Web. 12 June 2015
  9. Statistics Estonia, public database. Web 12 June 2015 .
  10. The Estonian Foreign Language Strategy 2008-2013, November 2007, Tallinn 2007.
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