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Pacek Piotr (War Studies University, Warsaw, Poland), Truszczyński Olaf E. (The Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, Poland)
Hybrid War and its Psychological Consequences
Torun International Studies, 2020, nr 1(13), s. 23-30, bibliogr. 23 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Psychologia, Wojna hybrydowa
Psychology, Hybrid war
Europa Wschodnia, Ukraina
Eastern Europe, Ukraine
The article deals with war, as experienced by human beings. The authors agree that war is materially and psychosocially costly. They present experts' opinions who professionally examined emotions and attention issues as well as dealt with the problems related to the psychological aspects of war. The main conclusion is that it is impossible to take part in a real war without experiencing strong emotions and incurring high psychological costs associated with participation in war operations. Death, injury, sexual violence, malnutrition, illness and disability are examples of the most dramatic physical consequences, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety are some of the effects of emotional disorders. War also contributes to disrupting the normal course of family and social life, causing suffering to people, which is very characteristic of the course of hostilities. This paper shows how people, who experienced war, respond to traumas and it presents different views on possible reac-tions. It also lists the consequences of psychological nature caused by hybrid warfare.(original abstract)
Pełny tekst
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