BazEkon - Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie

BazEkon home page

Meny główne

Schill Ryan (Utah Valley University Orem), Andrade Maureen (Utah Valley University Orem), Miller Ron (Utah Valley University Orem), Schill Angela (Utah Valley University Orem), Benson David (Utah Valley University Orem)
Entrepreneurial Desire for Outmigration : a Validated Measure
Journal of Intercultural Management, 2021, vol. 13, nr 3, s. 75-94, tab., bibliogr. 49 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Przedsiębiorczość, Kraje rozwijające się, Emigracja
Entrepreneurship, Developing countries, Emigration
Klasyfikacja JEL: F22, L26, R11, R23
Objective: The objective of this study was to understand the personal and interpersonal pressures entrepreneurial individuals feel to pursue opportunities outside their home country.
Methodology: Entrepreneurs in Mexico were given a survey regarding personal and interpersonal pressures to out migrate.
Findings: Exploratory factor analysis showed three valid factors for outmigration: personal preference, social pressure, and perception of opportunities.
Value Added: The instrument developed offers an overall Outmigration Tendency (OT) score which can provide valuable insight into why entrepreneurs choose to emigrate. This appears to be the first instrument to measure outmigration pressure and to be validated internationally.
Recommendations: The tendency score resulting from the survey can help researchers and policy makers understand the likelihood of a worker leaving his/her country to seek work opportunities elsewhere. (original abstract)
Pełny tekst
  1. Acosta, P., Fajnzylber P., & Lopéz J. H. (2007). The impact of remittances on poverty and human capital: evidence from Latin American household surveys. Working paper 4247. Washington, DC World Bank. Retrieved from Access: 8.13.2021.
  2. Adams, R. H. (2009). The determinants of international remittances in developing countries. World Development, 37(1), 93-103.
  3. Adams, R. H., & Page, J. (2005). Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries?. World Development, 33(10), 1645-1669.
  4. Asch, B. J. (1994). Emigration and Its effects on the sending country. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from Access: 8.13.2021.
  5. Bazillier, R., Magris, F., & Mirza, D. (2017). Out-migration and economic cycles. Review of World Economics, 153, 39-69. doi 10.1007/s10290-016-0267-8.
  6. Beine, M., Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (2008). Brain drain and human capital formation in developing countries: winners and losers. The Economic Journal, 188, 631-652.
  7. Bover, O., & Arellano, M. (2002). Learning about migration decisions from the migrants: using complementary datasets to model intra-regional migrations in Spain. Journal of Population Economics, 15(15), 357-380.
  8. Castro-Palaganas, E., Spitzer D. L., Kabamalan, M. M. M., Sanchez, M. C., Caricativo, R., Runnels, V., & Bourgeault, I. L. (2017). An examination of the causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of highly trained health personnel from the Philippines: The high cost of living/leaving - a mixed method study. Human Resources for Health, 15(1). Retrieved from Access: 8.13.2021.
  9. D'Agostino, A., Ghellini, G., & Longobardi, S. (2019). Out-migration of university enrolment: the mobility behavior of Italian students. International Journal of Manpower, 40(1), 56-72. doi:10.1108/IJM-07-2017-016.
  10. Dei, G.J.S., & Asgharzadeh, A. (2002). What is to be done? A look at some causes and consequences of the African brain drain. African Issues, 30(1), 31-36. doi: 10.2307/1167087.
  11. Docquier, F., Lodigiani, E., Rapoport, H., & Schiff, M. (2016). Emigration and democracy. Journal of Developmental Economics, 120, 209-223.
  12. Galiano, A., & Romero, J. G. (2018). Brain drain and income distribution. Journal of Economics, 124(3), 243-267.
  13. Gibson, J., & McKenzie, D. (2012). The economic consequences of 'brain drain' of the best and brightest: microeconomic evidence from five countries. The Economic Journal, 122(560), 339-375.
  14. Goldbach, C. (2017). Out-migration from coastal areas in Ghana and Indonesia - the role of environmental factors. CESifo Economic Studies, 63(4), 529-559.
  15. Grace, K., Hertrich, V., Singare, D., & Husak, G. (2018). Climate change: An analysis of the linkages between rainfall and out-migration in two Malian villages from 1981 to 2009. World Development, 109, 187-196. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.04.009.
  16. Gundry, L., & Welsch, H. (2001). The ambitious entrepreneur: High growth strategies of women- based enterprises. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5), 453-470.
  17. Ha􀁆on, T. J. (2014). Public opinion on immigration: has the recession changed minds? IZA discussion paper no. 8248. Bonn: IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor. Retrieved from
  18. He, Z., Zhai, G., Asami, Y., Tsuchida, S. (2016). Migration intentions and their determinants: comparison of college students in China and Japan. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 25(1), 62-84. doi: 10.1177/0117196815621203.
  19. Hilbert, S., Kuechenhoff, H., Sarubin, N., Nakagawa, T. T., & Buehner, M. (2016). The influence of the response format in a personality questionnaire: An analysis of a dichotomous, a Likert-type, and a visual analogue scale. TPM: Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 23(1), 3-24.
  20. Jaeger, D. A., Dohmen, T., Falk, A., Huffman, D., Sunde, U., & Bonin, H. (2010). Direct evidence on risk a􀁎tudes and migration. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 92(3), 684-689.
  21. Kawawaki, Y. (2018). Economic analysis of population migration factors caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami. Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies, 30(1), 44-65.
  22. Kubinger, K. D. (2003). On artificial results due to using factor analysis for dichotomous variables. Psychology Science, 45(1), 106-110.
  23. Leibert, T. (2016). She leaves, he stays? Sex-selective migration in rural East Germany. Journal of Rural Studies, 43, 267-279.
  24. Levi􀁆, P. (1998). Social remittances: Migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion. International Migration Review, 32(4), 926-948.
  25. Liao, J., Murphy, P., & Welsch, H. (2005). Developing and validating a construct of entrepreneurial intensity. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 8(2), 31-38. Access: 8.13.2021.
  26. Lim, S., & Jahng, S. (2019). Determining the number of factors using parallel analysis and its recent variants. Psychological Methods, 24(4), 452-467. Access: 8.13.2021.
  27. López-Córdova, J.E., & Olmedo, A. (2006), International remittances and development: Existing evidence, policies and recommendations. INTAL-ITD occasional paper, 41. Buenos Aires: Inter-American Development Bank. Retrieved from Access: 8.13.2021.
  28. Mansuri, G. (2007). Does work migration spur investment in origin communities? Entrepreneurship, schooling, and child health in rural Pakistan. In Ç. Özden. and M.Schiff (eds.), International Migration, Economic Development and Policy (pp. 99-140). Washington, DC: World Bank.
  29. Marche􀁆a, F. (2012). Return migration and the survival of entrepreneurial activities in Egypt. World Development, 40(10), 1999-2013.
  30. Naudé, W. (2010). Promoting entrepreneurship in developing countries: policy challenges. Policy Brief, 4. Helsinki: Finland United Nations University World Institute for Economics Research. Retrieved from Access: 8.13.2021.
  31. Naudé, W., Siegel, M., & Marchand, K. (2011). Entrepreneurship is not a binding constraint on growth and development in the poorest countries. World Development, 39(1), 33-44.
  32. Naudé, W., Siegel, M., & Marchand, K. (2017). Migration, entrepreneurship and development: critical questions. IZA Journal of Migration, 6(4). Retrieved from Access: 8.13.2021.
  33. Oosterbeek, H., van Praag, M., & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation. European Economic Review, 54(3), 442-54.
  34. Ratha, D., De, S., Kim, E.J., Plaze, S., Seshan, G., & Yemeogo, N.S. (2019). Data release: remittances to low- and middle-income countries on track to reach $551 billion in 2019 and $597 billion by 2020. Retrieved from Access: 8.13.2021.
  35. Roli, M. (2019). From farmland to wasteland: a study of out-migration. Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 62(4), 749-752.
  36. Sardadvar, S., & Vakulenko, E. (2016). Interregional migration within Russia and its east-west divide: evidence from spatial panel regressions. Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies, 28(2), 123-141.
  37. Sauer, J., Gorton, M., & Davidova, S. (2019). What drives rural out-migration? Insights from Kosovo. Post-Communist Economies, 31(2), 200-217.
  38. Stark, O., & Wang, Y. (2002). Inducing human capital formation: migration as a substitute for subsidies. Journal of Public Economics, 86(1), 29-46.
  39. Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. 5th ed. New York, NY: Pearson Education Inc.
  40. Taima, M., & Asami, A. (2019). Personal and regional determinants of out-migra tion from metropolitan areas in Japan. Review of Urban & Regional Development Studies, 31(1-2), 2-28.
  41. Theodori A. E., & Theodori, G. L. (2014). Perceptions of community and place and the migration intentions of at-risk youth in rural areas. Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 29(1), 103-121.
  42. ul Haq, R., Jahangeer, A., & Ahmad A. (2015). Out-migration in rural Pakistan: Does household poverty status matter?. The Pakistan Development Review, 54(4), 315-329.
  43. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2011). International migration policies: government views and priorities. Retrieved from PDFs/j_Ch_4.pdf. Access: 8.13.2021.
  44. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017). International migration policies: data booklet. number ST/ESA/ SER.A/395. Retrieved from Access: 8.13.2021.
  45. Varga, J. (2017). Out-migration and attrition of physicians and dentists before and after EU accession (2003 and 2011): the case of Hungary. European Journal of Health Economics, 18, 1079-1093. doi 10.1007/s10198-016-0854-6.
  46. Wahba, J., & Zenou, Y. (2012). Out of sight, out of mind: migration, entrepreneurship and social capital. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 42(5), 890-903.
  47. Welsch, H. (1998). North American entrepreneurs. In A. Morrison (ed.), Entrepreneurship: an international perspective (pp. 115-136). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
  48. Woodruff, C., & Zenteno, R. (2007). Migration networks and microenterprises in Mexico. Journal of Development Economics, 82(2), 509-528.
  49. World Bank (2020, October 29). COVID-19: remittance flows to shrink 14% by 2021. Retrieved from to the World Bank's,of 3 percent by 2030. Access: 8.13.2021.
Cytowane przez
Udostępnij na Facebooku Udostępnij na Twitterze Udostępnij na Google+ Udostępnij na Pinterest Udostępnij na LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu