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Ksenicz Igor (Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu)
Frameworks of Paradiplomacy. Cases of Selected Unitary States: France, the Netherlands and Czechia
Eastern European Journal of Transnational Relations, 2023, vol. 7, nr 2, s. 59-75, tab., bibliogr. 26 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Paradyplomacja, Państwo, Polityka zagraniczna, Samorząd terytorialny
Paradiplomacy, State, Foreign policy, Local government
Klasyfikacja JEL: H77,F50,R50.
Francja, Holandia, Republika Czeska
France, Netherlands, Czech Republic
Paradiplomacy literature focuses on federations. This paper is dedicated to selected unitary states. The aim was to identify the achievement of those states in terms of cooperation between central and local governments with respect to foreign policy. The principal research method was a semi-structured direct interview. In the light of the examined examples, the French model of paradiplomacy for a unitary state appears to be the best solution. It respects both the authority of the sub-state governments to engage in foreign cooperation and the constitutional prerogative of the government as the body responsible for pursuing foreign policy of the state. (original abstract)
Dostępne w
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie
Pełny tekst
  1. Association of Netherlands Municipalities (VNG) (2017). Local Government in the Netherlands.
  2. Bodnarová, B (2007). Regionálni aktéri českej zahraničnej politiky. In M. Kořan & M. Hrabálek (Eds.), Česka zahraniční politika: aktéři, struktura, proces (pp. 137-151). Brno: Masarykova univerzita. Mezinárodní politologický ústav.
  3. Cartier, G. (2021). The relationship between the state and the city from a comparative (constitutional) perspective. In J.E. Nijman et al. (Eds.), Research handbook on international law and cities (pp. 381-397). Cheltenham-Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  4. Dostál, V. (2020). Paradyplomacja czeskich województw. Regiony jako aktorzy polityki międzynarodowej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Sejmowe.
  5. Drulák, P, Königová, L., & Kratochvíl, P. (2005). How is the Czech Paradiplomacy? The Role of Municipal and Regional Governments in Czech Foreign Policy Decision-Making. In B. Dančák et al. (Eds.), Evropeizace. Nové téma politologického výzkumu (pp. 150-165). Brno: Masarykova univerzita v Brně. Mezinárodní politologický ústav.
  6. Duchacek, I. (1990). Perforated Sovereignties: Towards a Typology of New Actors in International Relations. In H.J. Michelmann & P. Soldatos (Eds.), Federalism and International Relations. The Role of Subnational Units (pp. 1-33). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  7. Duran, M. (2011). French regions as diplomatic actors: The case of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. French Politics, 9, 339-363.
  8. Duran, M. (2015). Mediterranean Paradiplomacies. The Dynamics of Diplomatic Reterritorialization. Leiden: Brill.
  9. Government of the Netherlands (2022, September 7). Speech by Minister Hoekstra at the opening of the academic year Leiden University. Retrieved from
  10. Harvey, W.S. (2011). Strategies for conducting elite interviews. Qualitative Research, 11(4), 431-441.
  11. Hoetjes, B.J.S. (2009). Trends and issues in municipal twinnings from the Netherlands. Habitat International, 33, 157-164.
  12. Kamiński, T. & Gzik, M. (2021). Polish Cities' Cooperation with Chinese Partners and its Role in the Polish Foreign Policy. Sprawy Międzynarodowe, 74(1), 65-92.
  13. Ksenicz, I. (2020). Towards Framework of Polish Paradiplomacy. Sprawy Międzynarodowe 73(3), 229-250.
  14. Kuznetsov, A.S. (2015). Theory and Practice of Paradiplomacy. Subnational Governments in International Affairs. London and New York: Routledge.
  15. Liu, T., & Song, Y. (2020). Chinese Paradiplomacy: A Theoretical Review. SAGE Open, January-March, 1-14.
  16. Mamadouh, V. (2016). Town Twinning. Over the (Ir)Relevance of the Paradiplomacy of European Cities. In V. Mamadouh & A. van Wageningen (Eds.), Urban Europe. Fifty Tales of the City (pp. 339-346). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  17. Mamadouh, V., & van der Wusten, H. (2016). The Paradiplomacy of Cities and Regions: Transnational Relations between Sub-state Political Entities. In J. Dittmer & F. McConnell (Eds.), Diplomatic Cultures and International Politics. Translations, Spaces and Alternatives (pp. 135-153). London and New York: Routledge.
  18. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2022). Do what we do best. A strategy for Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. Policy document 2022.
  19. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic (MZV) (2015). Concept of the Czech Republic's Foreign Policy.
  20. Papazian, T. (2018). Super Local Diplomacy: Nagorno Karabakh's Outreach to French Municipalities. USC Dornsife Institute of Armenian Studies, April 13. Retrieved from
  21. Paquin, S. (2020). Paradiplomacy. In T. Balzacq et al. (Eds.), Global Diplomacy (pp. 49-61). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
  22. Rijk, Interprovinciaal Overleg (IPO), Vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten (VNG), Unie van Waterschappen (UvW) (2013). Code Interbestuurlijke Verhoudingen.
  23. Schiavon, J.A. 2018. Comparative Paradiplomacy. London and New York: Routledge.
  24. Soldatos, P. (1990). An Explanatory Framework for the Study of Federated States as Foreign-policy Actors. In H.J. Michelmann & P. Soldatos (Eds.), Federalism and International Relations. The Role of Subnational Units(pp. 34-53). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  25. Tavares, Rodrigo. 2016. Paradiplomacy. Cities and States as Global Players. New York: Oxford University Press.
  26. Blanchard, B. (2009, May 7). China warns France against award for Dalai Lama. Reuters. Retrieved from
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