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Autor
Jakimowicz Robert (Kolegium Gospodarki i Administracji Publicznej)
Tytuł
Stosunki japońsko-chińskie w latach 1949-2002 : aspekty polityczne i gospodarcze
Sino-Japanese Relations from 1949 to 2002 : Political and Economic Aspects
Źródło
Zeszyty Naukowe / Akademia Ekonomiczna w Krakowie. Seria Specjalna, Monografie, 2004, nr 163, 250 s., rys., tab., bibliogr. s.219-232
Słowa kluczowe
Polityka międzynarodowa, Międzynarodowe stosunki gospodarcze, Konflikty polityczne, Stosunki gospodarcze, Stosunki polityczne, Przegląd literatury, Rozprawa habilitacyjna
International politics, International economic relations, Political conflicts, Economic relations, Political relations, Literature review, Habilitation thesis
Uwagi
summ.
Kraj/Region
Japonia, Chiny
Japan, China
Abstrakt
W pracy przedstawiono i zanalizowano historię stosunków japońsko-chińskich w latach 1949-2002. Omówiono sytuację polityczną i militarną Chin i Japonii w latach 1945-1949, konferencję pokojową w San Francisco w 1951 r., japoński dylemat, z którymi Chinami zawrzeć traktat pokojowy, który (z powodu wojny koreańskiej 1951-1953) zakończył się dwudziestoletnim okresem kontaktów nieoficjalnych. Następnie przedstawiono początki normalizacji stosunków między Japonią i ChRL oraz podpisanie traktatu pokojowego w 1972 r. Odrębny rozdział poświęcono oficjalnym stosunkom gospodarczym obu krajów od 1972 r., gdyż, zdaniem autora, stanowią one trwałą podstawę kontaktów japońsko-chińskich w wielu dziedzinach. Omówiono także najważniejsze kwestie sporne pomiędzy krajami: kwestię podręcznikową, oficjalne wizyty niektórych premierów japońskich w świątyni Yasukuni, problem stosunków japońsko-tajwańskich po 1972 r. oraz spór terytorialny o wyspy Senkaku (Diaoyutai). Zdaniem autora, znaczenie wymienionych wyżej problemów będzie maleć wraz z zacieśnianiem się stosunków japońsko-chińskich, wypracowaniem środków zaufania i mechanizmów rozwiązywania sporów oraz dialogiem strategicznym, służącym stabilizacji.

In this monograph, the author presents and analyses Sino-Japanese relations from the creation of the People's Republic of China to the end of 2002. In the introduction, the author makes reference to the 2000-year history of relations between the Chinese and Japanese nations with particular emphasis on the 1895-1945 period. The beginning of the report describes the political and military situation of China and Japan in 1945-1949, which became one of the main reasons these countries maintained only unofficial contacts until the beginning of the 1970s. The author reconstructs and analyses the following issues: the absence of Chinese representatives at the San Francisco conference (at that time, the PRC was involved in a war on the Korean Peninsula) and the Japanese dilemma on concluding a peace treaty with China. This latter issue was resolved in line with the priorities of US foreign policy in 1952, when Japan signed a peace treaty with the Republic of China in Taiwan. Next, the article presents two decades of unofficial contacts between both countries, each decade reflecting a different Beijing policy towards Tokyo. The first decade, initially preceded by the Chinese hope - quickly abandoned - of inciting revolution in Japan, marked a Chinese attempt to neutralize Japan in the 1950s. This policy ended in fiasco. In the second decade, Chinese policy underwent gradual evolution and assumed entering into bilateral diplomatic relations, which were finally realised only in 1972. Many reasons underlay this fact, the most important being the PRC's anti-Soviet policy, the commencement of normalization of Sino-American relations (President Richard Nixon's visit in 1972, concluded with the Shanghai Communiqué), and acceptance of the Japanese-American military alliance by the Chinese authorities. During the period of unofficial contacts between the two nations, economic relations thrived; the author devotes a separate section to this issue. Japan maintained these contacts with its Chinese partner according to the principle of separating economics from politics. In the 1960s, two trade channels functioned: one included contacts through "friendly companies" (based on private contacts), and the other - commercial agreements based on semi-formal contacts (e.g., the Liao-Takasaki memorandum). The main section of the study is dedicated to the commencement of diplomatic relations in 1972 and movement towards a peace treaty in the period from 1972 to 1978. The author attempts comprehensively to present and analyse the process of normalization of relations between the two countries by considering internal and external factors. At the beginning of that process, Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka played a significant role and managed to enter into diplomatic relations with China in September 1972. On the other hand, the signing and ratification of the peace treaty turned out to be particularly difficult for both countries due, inter alia, to the following: a dispute over the anti-hegemony clause aimed at the Soviet Union, the Senkaku (Diaoyutai) Islands territorial dispute, the cautious policy of successive Japanese Prime Ministers and the permanent opposition of the pro-Taiwan fraction within the Liberal Democratic Party to signing and ratifying that treaty. Ultimately, on 12 August 1978 in Beijing, the countries signed a peace and friendship treaty. Next, the author dedicates the largest chapter to the countries' official economic relations since 1972, assuming that - on the one hand - they constitute a stable basis for Sino-Japanese contacts in many areas and, on the other - they are an important stability factor in Asia and the Pacific region. It is important to recognize that the Japanese economy is the second largest economy in the world (behind the US), while China's is the second largest East Asian economy (behind Japan) and continues to develop rapidly. In the last section of the study, the author discusses outstanding issues between the countries that still need to be addressed. In order, these issues are: the sensitive question of historical textbooks and official visits of some Japanese Prime Ministers to the Yasukuni temple, the Kokaryo dormitory issue, Japan-Taiwan relations after 1972 and the territorial dispute over the Senkaku Islands (Diaoyutai). Finally, the author draws some basic conclusions from his analysis of relations between the two countries and outlines the opportunities and threats facing Sino-Japanese relations within the continuing rationalization and globalization of international relations. (original abstract)
Dostępne w
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu
Bibliografia
Pokaż
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